The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
© brant

I think that looking at the diagram in another fashion may reveal star characteristics..

'13-10-01, 02:28

If you look at it like the thing that all star types have in common is that they range from blue to red. No matter what size.

Another thing they have in common is that there are variable stars for all types and sizes. So any model has to take into account that all stars pulsate.

Pulsars is where you step out of solid stars and into plasma phenomena. 
I  understand the purpose of neutronium and I think you cant have it with push gravity for the same reason you can have an iron sun with push gravity.
I dont think there is a spinning sphere in the Crab pulsar.. Its a fast aether/capacitive oscillator pulse.  I think there must be density variations in the aether in space similar to plasma variations in space...

I believe this is an example of the Aether pulsing in a Joe Cell. Notice the extremely regular pulses. Almost a square wave. Not like the froth is causing the effect.
This is the same mechanism that is responsible for stars pulsing. 

There is a gating somehow that causes this action. In the Correa's work the pulsating action is a property of the work function of the electrode(the composition of the iron surface), gas pressure and electrical current flow(local aether density).

"During the same decade, investigation of externally pulsed electrodynamic anomalies in Russia was in full swing, with the objective of harnessing a new source of power (62) and, in 1989, the Novosti Press Agency released news of Prof. A. Chernetskii's design of a plasma reactor that operated with a "mysterious" regime which was termed by Chernetskii the "self-generating discharge", and which appeared to serve as a source of overunity energy, as it allegedly played havoc with the one megawatt substation driving it (63). "

"Our point of departure was a serendipitous observation - made while studying sustained X-ray production - of quasi-regular discontinuities in glow discharges having a minimal positive column at very high vacua (10E-5 to 10E-7 Torr) and at low to medium voltages (10-50 kV DC). These events, which were associated with X-ray bursts, spontaneously originated localized cathode discharge jets that triggered the plasma glow in a fashion quite distinct from the flashing of a photocathode or from an externally pulsed plasma glow. It would soon become apparent that these discontinuities were elicited by spontaneous electronic emissions from the cathode under conditions of current saturation of the plasma glow, and could be triggered with much lower applied DC field strengths. The discharge was distinct from the VAD regime in that the plasma channel was self-starting, self-extinguishing, and the regime was pulsatory (79)."


Pulsations show up in many phenomena that is an indicator of the presence of another unaccounted for energy source.

And Baron Von Reichenbach observed some other interesting aether effects. 


"In all of this, the Baron was progressively moving toward an astounding demonstration, which, he believed, would give an unequivocal explanation for the Aurora Borealis. 

An electromagnet, placed within a large hollow iron sphere, was examined in the darkroom under varying degrees of electrification. The Baron referred to the iron globe as his "terrella", or, "little earth". The electromagnet poised within this globe, he raised the rheostat in degrees. Sensitives clearly saw a very intensified color display, which proceeded from both poles toward the center. These intensely colored flames struck out across the outer globe surface in sharp, very bright flares. Observation taught that Od lights of such great extent did not adhere, but freely flowed over the surface of conductive materials."



'13-10-26, 13:20
Charles Chandler
Baltimore, MD
I think that pulsars and variable stars (e.g., the Cepheids) are two different things. For one thing, the cycle is very different. For pulsars, it's anywhere from 1/1000 of a second, to several hours (I think). For the Cepheids, it's days to weaks. Also, the spectrum is very different. Pulsars emit a variety of wavelengths, but with some distinctive bands, and lots of UV radiation, whereas Cepheids emit blackbody radiation.
I believe that pulsars are "natural tokamaks", with magnetically confined plasma undergoing nuclear fusion, thus producing the UV radiation, which typically would have been blocked by the surrounding matter, but which isn't, because it's magnetic confinement, not gravitational pressure that's causing the fusion. Then, the rapid pulses are the result of sputtering in the fusion reactor, where fusion disperses the matter, but then it collapses again, and more fusion occurs.
Cepheids are a different breed. I believe that they are like the Sun, but the "solar cycle" is just a lot shorter. I believe that this is caused by s-waves below the surface, with crests that elevate matter into oppositely charged matter, triggering electrostatic discharges. The waves resonate, and are subjected to both constructive and destructive interference. The competition between those forces produces the oscillations.
'13-10-28, 03:10
St. Louis area

I've long been rather satisfied with your 2 stellar models of tokamaks and CI, or whatever you're calling sun-like stars now. But I'd be curious if you come up with details about the pulsar fusion sputtering. I mean I'm curious about exactly how that would operate and cause hundreds or thousands of equally timed sputters or pulses per second. Since sputtering is a term for electric discharges, is E.D.s what you mean here too? And do you have data on the exact timing of pulses? It seems like there'd be some variation in the timing of pulses, if they're not due to rotating lighthouse beacons. I guess the same question applies to the Cepheids. Does the data on them show some variation in the time between changes in brightness? Seeing some of the data might be interesting too, if it's displayed clearly somehow.

'13-10-28, 05:08
Charles Chandler
Baltimore, MD
Lloyd said:
I'd be curious if you come up with details about the pulsar fusion sputtering.
I'm basically saying that it's an implosion/explosion cycle. Nuclear fusion tends to be self-defeating, since the energy released tends to disperse the matter, which reduces the chance of more fusion happening. Ah but if the surrounding matter is under pressure, the dispersion will create an equal-but-opposite convergence. So one spurt of fusion disperses the matter, but then the matter collapses again, and when it does, the chance of fusion goes back up again. And that can cause another spurt of fusion. Thus the matter can fall into an implosion/explosion cycle, where the implosion causes fusion, which disperses the matter, which then collapses again.
This can be duplicated in the laboratory, but the process plays out pretty fast, after just a couple of cycles, because the matter implodes upon a point where the previous fusion has already used up all of the available fuel. In other words, imagine setting off a stick of dynamite in the air. This will create an explosion, followed by an equal-by-opposite implosion. The point of implosion will be exactly where the stick of dynamite used to be. But now there's nothing to blow up under the extreme pressures of the implosion. So there's no repetitive cycle. The same is true if the "dynamite" was hydrogen that fused into helium. On the next implosion, a lot of the hydrogen has already been fused, and fusing helium into something even heavier would take a lot more pressure, so that doesn't happen. Hence the secondary explosion has less energy than the primary, and the tertiary is less than the secondary, and before long, the whole process stops.
But what if it's a "natural tokamak" (a.k.a., toroidal plasmoid), and matter is still streaming in? Then you might have enough fuel working its way into the reactor to perpetuate the process.
Then the question is: how fast can these cycles go? The answer just depends on the speed of sound in the surrounding matter. The thunder issued by lightning here on Earth isn't just a single percussive event — it's a wavetrain. When the discharge channel collapses, the compression heats the air to 25,000 degrees C, which is hotter than the electric current was (i.e., 2,500 degrees C). The extreme temperature causes the secondary expansion. Then there is a secondary implosion, and this repeat thousands of times to produce the 1/2 second wavetrain that we call "thunder". So a frequency of thousands of events per second is easily possible. At much hotter temperatures in a nuclear fusion reactor, where the speed of sound might be something like 1000 meters per second, to get 1000 events per second, the implosion/explosion range would be just 1 meter.
As a toroidal plasmoid, with matter moving at relativistic speeds, such that the magnetic pinch effect gets the matter consolidated enough that fusion becomes possible, the radius of the plasmoid would have to be huge — otherwise, the centrifugal force of the relativistic matter would be too great. So maybe a pulsar is a toroidal plasmoid with a radius not of a typical star like our Sun, but rather, of our entire solar system. So imagine a ring, 1 meter wide, with a radius like the orbit of Neptune, and with matter zipping around at 9/10 the speed of light. Now, would an implosion/explosion cycle that started in one little segment of the ring be capable of propagating all of the way around the ring, and getting the whole thing to resonate at the same frequency? I think so. A little explosion at one point along the ring will radiate matter outward. The implosion right at that point will be perfect to create another round of fusion. Away from that point, it will be less than perfect, but still better than chance. So yes, I think that an implosion/explosion cycle that starts at one point on the ring will work its way around the whole ring, and eventually get the whole thing resonating at the same frequency.
'13-10-28, 06:02
Charles Chandler
Baltimore, MD
Lloyd said:
It seems like there'd be some variation in the timing of pulses, if they're not due to rotating lighthouse beacons.
Actually, there IS some variation. It isn't a simple sine wave that gets generated — the waveform is spikey, and the frequency isn't 100% steady. I'm thinking that the toroidal plasmoid, with the magnetic pinch effect pulling in, and the electrostatic repulsion pushing back out, meters its own fuel. When fusion occurs, particles are ejected, making room for more particles in the center of the ring, where the next fusion event will occur. The charged particles are forced in by the magnetic pinch effect, and distributed evenly by the electrostatic repulsion, resulting in a nice consistent quantity of new fuel for the next fusion cycle. But any irregularity in the available fuel will create spikes in the output.
Speaking of beacons, I'd like to mention another factor that I haven't fully investigated, but which I consider to be important in focusing the beam.
If we consider a ring, 1 meter wide, and with the radius of the orbit of Neptune, that is hosting nuclear fusion, how will the light propagate away from that ring? Since it's not a point source, we have to consider the effects of wave phases.
To understand this, we should first consider how a phased array radar (PAR) works. Instead of 1 transmitter like in a conventional radar, a PAR has a bunch of them, and the phase of the waves being generated by each can be controlled quite precisely. As a consequence, in one particular direction coming off of the array, all of the waves will be perfectly in phase, and the constructive interference will create a powerful wavetrain in that direction. In all other directions, destructive interference gets the waves to cancel each other out, resulting in little-to-no waves. As a consequence, they effectively get a beam projecting outward from the radar that can be pointed. And because the "pointing" is entirely electronic, they can "point" the radar instantaneously in any direction they want. (This is important in tracking high-velocity targets, which can't be tracked with conventional radars, where you have to aim a physical apparatus at the target, introducing physical limits as to how fast you can point the thing.)
So back to the toroidal plasmoid, moving away from it along the axis, the waves being issued from every point along the ring have the chance to combine into one wavetrain, with the energy of all of the points along the ring. In any other direction, the waves cancel each other out. So phase interference magnifies the EM waves normal to the ring, along the axis of rotation, like a phased array radar.
I "think" that I've read somewhere that EM waves that are close to being in phase will result in all of them falling perfectly into phase, and moving in precisely the same direction. Brant could probably answer this, but I "think" that this is one of the things that helps create lasers — there is a magnification coming from multiple waves getting into perfect step with each other, and this focuses the beam in the direction that they all agree on.
If this is correct, the "lighthouse beacon" is actually a toroidal plasmoid in an implosion/explosion cycle, generating a focused beam by the phased array effect.
'13-10-28, 06:30
Charles Chandler
Baltimore, MD
Lloyd said:
I guess the same question applies to the Cepheids. Does the data on them show some variation in the time between changes in brightness?
Cepheids vary on a period of days to weeks, and some theorists (e.g., myself) believe that even longer periods, such as the 11-year cycle of our Sun, are caused by the same mechanism. I "think" that the period is relatively precise, and the changes in luminosity are sine waves, at least to the limits of the instrumentation. I'll try to locate some data on this.
'13-10-30, 01:59
St. Louis area

Very interesting words you assembled. Regarding your comparison of pulsars with lightning pulses, although I don't understand your explanation of the pulsing real well as yet, it reminded me of Thornhill's statement some years ago, I guess, if I remember right, that pulsar signals trail off much like lightning signals do.

I just looked up pulsar signal images and found something that might be interesting, so I'll see about posting some of that shortly.

A site on the Handbook of Pulsar Astronomy at http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/research/pulsar/handbook/ch1.html has these pulsar signal diagrams:


I notice in the bluish diagram that there are about 21 big spikes per second, but each wave consisting of about 7 little spikes, so that's about 150 spikes per second.

© Charles Chandler
It's harder to find diagrams of lightning pulses. I found this link http://www-ssc.igpp.ucla.edu/personnel/russell/papers/evidence/ regarding evidence of lightning on Venus with this diagram:

Another diagram at Lightning Antenna - SpaceWeather at is this one:


'13-10-30, 02:28
Charles Chandler
Baltimore, MD
Also on the topic of pulsars, they typically operate in the radio band, which is far-infrared. These slow frequencies are typically synchrotron emissions, where a charged particle is spiraling in an external magnetic field (i.e., the charged particles are part of a Birkeland current). So I'm thinking that the radio emissions are nuclear fusion ejecta, which cross magnetic field lines on their way out of the toroidal plasmoid, and due to the Lorentz force, are forced to spiral. As they twist, they emit radio waves. Some pulsars also emit gamma rays, which would be from the nuclear fusion itself. These are easily absorbed, so we wouldn't expect them to be as common as the radio waves, which pass through just about anything.
Also, the pulse rate of a pulsar tends to be steady, but also gradually slows down. The standard model, which attributes the frequency to axial precession, says that the precession is slowing. Precession going that fast is impossible, so saying that something is slowing it down is just as impossible. I'm saying that the frequency comes from the speed of sound, which determines how fast an implosion will occur after the last explosion. If the frequency is slowing down, this means that the toroidal plasmoid is cooling down, and thus the speed of sound is diminishing.
Then there are "glitches", in which the pulse rate slows down somewhat more dramatically. The standard model says that the precession rate is reduced by a "starquake". So why don't some starquakes speed up the precession? ;) Anyway, in my model, a sudden slowing of the pulse rate is evidence of a sudden cooling. This could be caused by irregularities in the fuel supply. Assuming that matter is streaming in, toward the end of the life-cycle of an accretion disc, the matter thins out, and thus the nuclear reactor starts to cool down, and the explosion/implosion cycle will get slower. A sudden step-down in the density of the matter streaming in will produce a sudden step-down in the temperature of the reactor, and thus longer explosion/implosion cycles.

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