ESD: SOLAR GRANULES & PHOTOSPHERE ANODE OR CATHODE TUFTS
__I think that the source of the electrons is 20000 km below the limb.
__The electrons accelerate as they move outward because they are moving away from a current divider.
__At 4000 km below the limb the increasing speed and decreasing pressure cause the eruption of convection (i.e. granules).
__Below 4000 km the high-pressure plasma generates BB radiation.
__Above 4000 km we get spectral lines (emission & absorption).
__My model has a current divider 20000 km below the limb.
__There the electrons are stationary as the E-field pulling them down to the under[lying] positive layer matches the E-field from the positive heliosphere.
__Above the current divider the electrons accelerate and continue to accelerate.
__Only a current divider can explain that acceleration.
__To me granules look and act like cathode tufts while penumbral filaments look like B-field-aligned electric currents.
__EU says "As noticed by Scott the tufted plasma sheath above the stellar anode seems to be the cosmic equivalent of a 'PNP transistor' a simple electronic device using small changes in voltage to control large changes in electrical power output.
__The tufted sheath thus regulates the solar discharge and provides stability of radiated heat and light output while the power to the Sun varies throughout the sunspot cycle."
__Why not a NPN transistor??
__The PNP idea was from Ralph Juergens back from the days of the Germanium transistor when it was easier [to] make PNP
__CC: If Juergens or Scott could have worked out the solar instantiation of the transistor effect we'd have schematic drawings by now. ...
__I concluded that at 6000 K we don't even have dielectric breakdown much less any sort of transistor effect.
__I looked at Juergens' solar anode idea and saw that it really didn't match up with any of the observables.
__Rather than presumptuously thinking that I could succeed where Juergens failed I ... looked to try something that he didn't which led me to the solar cathode idea.
==PHOTOSPHERE ANODE OR CATHODE TUFTS
__[Scott et al are] saying that the tufts at the anode (the positive electrode) are analogous to the granules in the photosphere.
__But he doesn't say anything about the charging mechanism or why the interplanetary medium would be negatively charged.
__the granules ARE tufts but this is actually a "negative glow" plasma.
__the dominant charge near the surface of the Sun is negative and the Sun is therefore expelling electrons toward the positively charged interplanetary medium
__though the photosphere is positively charged as a tufted double layer.
__CC: The photosphere is definitely charged as the "convection" in the granules is moving at supersonic speeds (as much as 7 km/s) which cannot possibly be thermodynamic convection — it can only [be] evidence of the electric force.
__But if the charge was negative considering the conductivity of the plasma it wouldn't exert a body force on the plasma itself — it would just strip off the electrons.
__So the body force acting on the plasma in the photosphere that keeps it tightly bound to the Sun supporting supersonic "convection" can only be the electric force acting on a positive charge.
__Therefore the underlying charge [under the photosphere] has to be negative.
__CC: I'm saying that the hydrogen [sub-photosphere] is highly compressed plasma which has the dynamics of a liquid.
__the electric force is what actually holds the tufts down to the cathode so forcefully.
__So tufting is a positive double-layer that is emitting electrons.
__It doesn't make sense until you understand the reason for the positive double-layer.
__It gets its form and its energy from the underlying negative layer that is emitting electrons.
__In that context the photosphere makes perfect sense as a tufted positive double-layer but the discharge is from a negative Sun to a positive interplanetary medium.
__Check out solar Tsunami's..