More from Tom Bridgman
The highlighted text below is Bridgman's. The main point seems to be what maintains current flow in the EU model. That's a problem for the anode model, but not the cathode model. The latter produce their own electric currents. The anode model requires electric currents from outside, but doesn't specify where exactly. ... I think the next post will get into more detail than this one.
Challenges for Electric Universe 'Theorists'
... Astronomers have studied the effects of free charges and electric fields in space as far back as 1922 (1922BAN.....1..107P) and 1924 (1924MNRAS..84..720R).
... Rosseland and Pannekoek's work is still cited today since gravitational stratification is one of the easiest ways to generate and sustain an electric field in space. ... Why do EU supporters continue to claim that astronomers ignore electric fields and free charges in space in spite of all the evidence to the contrary?
... Even the classic discharge graphic in Cobine's "Gaseous Conductors" (pg 213, figure 8.4) has been modeled with Particle-In-Cell (PIC) plasma modeling software (see Studies of Electrical Plasma Discharges, figure 10.1). Plasma models, some sold as commercial software, are also used to understand the plasma environment in a number of research, space, and industrial environments (see VORPAL). See also: Electric Universe: Real Plasma Physicists BUILD Mathematical Models, Electric Universe: Plasma Physics for Fun AND Profit!, Electric Universe: Plasma Modeling vs. 'Mystic Plasma' Why do Electric Universe supporters consistently dismiss the use of mathematical modeling of plasmas?
Electric Sun/Electric Stars (General)
- Mainstream solar physics uses Doppler imaging of the solar surface to construct images of the farside of the Sun (see Acoustic Imaging of the Entire Farside of the Sun). Now the STEREO spacecraft are at positions where we will finally see the entire sphere of the Sun.... This capability critically depends on our understanding of the solar interior, yet EU claims that all our models of the solar interior are wrong. a) If mainstream models of the solar interior are so wrong, why does this technique work at all? b) All of the solar data for this capability are PUBLIC (see MDI Data Services & Information) and the software runs on desktop-class computers you can buy at almost any computer store. So when will EU demonstrate that their Electric Sun model can generate equivalent or better results?
- EU 'theorists' or even observers have provided no skymaps (such as those provided by a variety of missions and projects) showing tracks of electric currents powering the stars. These maps are needed so we can direct more sensitive instruments at the appropriate regions to determine if these currents actually exist.
- The standard for physical models is that they produce numerical values in agreement with observations (in situ measurements or fluxes) from well-understood, more fundamental principles. Yet the Electric Sun (ES) model produces no such values of solar wind or interplanetary magnetic field, values which we can compare to measurements from the many satellites flown from the orbit of Mercury to the heliopause. Why should the Electric Sun model be regarded as superior to the more standard model(s) when the standard models disagree at the few percent level, or at worst factor of a few, while ES produces no values for comparison at all? (see Mathematics: The Language of Science)
Solar Resistor model (Thornhill Z-Pinch)
One of the popular EU models for stars is a z-pinch configuration [from] Wal Thornhill. Using Alfven circuit analogies, the major feature of this model is a current stream where the star derives its energy as a resistive load.
... the major shortfalls of this model are:
- predicts magnetic fields for the surface of the Sun and at the orbit of the Earth, 1000 to 1,000,000 times larger than measured.
- ignores that free current streams of ions and electrons are subject to numerous instabilities which make them break up in short timescales.
Solar Capacitor model (Don Scott, The Electric Sky)
An alternative solar model, radically different from the Thornhill model above, is a spherical capacitor model with the heliopause as the cathode (source of electrons) and the solar photosphere as the source of ions & protons (anode). ... This spherical current configuration has been studied heavily in theory and experiment since the 1920s.
... Applying basic conservation principles to this configuration, just some of the deficiencies found are
- predicts a solar proton wind speed 200 times faster than observed.
- predicts energetic particle fluxes far in excess of what we observe. (proton fluxes a billion times larger). These fluxes are also far higher than the most deadly regions of the Earth radiation belts, meaning that interplanetary travel would be sure death for astronauts.
- ... in situ measurements do not show a high-energy stream of electrons heading towards the Sun.
- Without an external EMF maintaining the potential between the photosphere and heliopause, the Electric Sun will shut down due to charge neutralization in a very tiny fraction of a second.
Space Weather & Heliophysics
... The different professional computational models used by NASA, NOAA, the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, etc. (CCMC) agree very well on large-scale behavior of coronal mass ejections and other space weather events.
- a) Where is the Electric Sun model that can compute the particle fluxes, energies and fields from first principles which are consistent with the measured solar luminosity and in situ spacecraft particle and field measurements?
- b) If EU does not publish its models so they can be tested against other models as well as measurements, how can they claim their model is better, much less that they are doing science?
... where is the EU computation of the size of the Pioneer Anomaly based on the EU model? Such a computation would be valuable for precision navigation of future interplanetary missions yet they have provided nothing.