© Lloyd

__LK1: CC do you think you have your list of reasons for a cathode Sun
__CC: Here is a brief document ... http://qdl.scs-inc.us/?top=7875
__CC: ... Birkeland's cathode sun model:
__The shell itself was wired as a cathode and discharged toward the chamber walls of his experiments.
__One thing he noticed after continued use is that "soot" would build up along the sides of the glass chamber.
__After a lot of experimentation he realized that both positively charged particles as well as negatively charged particles were being ejected toward the chamber walls.
__Today we would call it "sputtering".
__as he cranked up the magnetic field. It created a series of discharge loops that moved electrons from one area of the surface to another.
__Birkeland achieved the "best" results in his experiments in terms of replicating solar-type images that look like a photosphere when he used LOTS of gas (pressurized gas) rather than when he attempted to make it a "more pure" vacuum.
__He shows at least one image of this pressurized experiment which looks to form as a simple double layer that sticks to the sphere.
__The discharges in that case come from the surface of the cathode and "sometimes" to [or] through the surface of the plasma double [layer].
__[H]owever there are smaller surface discharges that stick closer to the surface and never rise high enough to rise out of the photosphere.
__Birkeland actually recreated almost every important high energy feature we observe in atmospheric activity from the sun using his cathode model.
__He basically just [kept] increasing the complexity of his experiments until he had created: electrical discharge type flares; "jets"; pencil-sized cathode rays; coronal loop activity; and pretty much every important high energy observation seen in satellite imagery today.
__He noted and recorded both types of particles were emitted from his cathode [positive and negative?] and he explained all the mathematics associated with their travel path.
__BC: the Arc Cathode paper ... says: D. Plasma Expansion and Ion Acceleration
__A further astonishing fact of arc spots is the high kinetic energy of ions leaving the cathodic plasma cloud toward the walls and the anode [21] [22]
__The ions are accelerated by three forces: 1) the pressure gradient within the cathodic plasma; 2) the electron-ion friction; and 3) the electric field which has the opposite direction in the plasma expansion zone forming a potential hump near the cathode spot.
__Electrons are accelerated by the dominating pressure gradient also but are slowed down by friction and the electric field.
__Thus the electrical resistance of the expanding plasma is negative doubtless a further strange property of arc spots.
__However at high currents and in gas environments where a kind of constricted dense plasma column develops this curiosity disappears the field retains its normal direction.
__The generation of multiple charged ions in the dense cathodic plasma by thermal and pressure ionization (under nonideal conditions e.g. in explosions) and freezing of this composition during plasma expansion was investigated particularly by Brown Anders and others (for instance [25]).]
__BC: That … is a mechanism for the solar wind that is pretty well studied based on lab experiments if you use the cathode model.
__The cathode model seems to fit the observations very well.
__The photosphere is .6 eV in temperature which is not very far from the surface in negative glow terms.
__The Corona is 100eV giving you pretty good bounds on where the electron emitting surface is...
__if you have a negative electrode that is emitting electrons you can expect a positive double-layer to build up around the negative electrode and this positive double-layer gets lit up by the flow of electrons through it.

__Double-layers are formed by the electric force in the presence of some sort of dielectric.
__So there is a charge separation and something is keeping the charges separate.
__It might be a bonafide insulator or it might be something else.
__I think that they're net charges not relative charges.
__So the liquid hydrogen layer is definitely positive and the negative layer above it is definitely negative.
__Then the photosphere is the positive double-layer clinging to the negative layer.
__So they're not just varying degrees of charge — they're opposite in net polarity.
__For positively charged plasma to be held tightly down to the Sun why doesn't it just strip off the electrons from the underlying layer?
__This can only mean that the negative charge has a more powerful force holding it down too.
__So there has to be an even lower layer that is positively charged which holds down the negative layer which in turn holds down the topmost positive layer.
__In this way I deduced that the Sun is made up of oppositely charged electrostatic layers.
__I couldn't figure out what was preserving the charge separation until somebody turned me onto Harold Aspden's work with compressive ionization.
__The force of gravity compresses the plasma beyond its liquid density which begins to ionize the plasma.
__The electrons that are forced out of the over-compressed plasma then cling to that layer without being able to flow back in because there isn't enough room between the atoms.
__The net result is huge charge separations despite the near-perfect conductivity of the plasma.

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