Stellar Models Stellar Binding Forces The question of what keeps stars organized is non-trivial. To understand the issue, we can look at the numbers for the Sun. It condensed from a dusty plasma with a volume of something like 7.48 × 1037 km3.1,2,3 The temperature would have been roughly 10 K. The volume of the Sun is 1.41 × 1018 km3, meaning a compression ratio of 5.31 × 1019. If we multiply 10 K by that ratio, we get an expected temperature of 5.31 × 1020 K. Needless to say, that's way out of range for condensed matter. And the actual temperature of the Sun varies from 6.00 × 103 K at the surface to 1.50 × 107 K in the core (in the "fusion furnace" model), for an average temperature of roughly 105 K. That's a discrepancy of 15 orders of magnitude! So where did all of that heat go?   Some of it has been expelled into the heliosphere as solar wind. Yet if we compressed the plasma in the heliosphere such that we got the temperature up to 5.31 × 1020 K, it would occupy only 2.64 × 1015 km3, which is less than 0.2% of the solar volume. So essentially, the Sun has only just begun to regenerate with solar wind the cloud from which it condensed, and it still has 99.8% of its thermal energy. So again, what happened to the 15 more orders of magnitude of heat?   In the Chandler's model, the kinetic energy has all been converted to electrostatic potential. Compressive ionization separated the charges. In so doing, it also removed the heat that would have precluded condensation. Powerful electric fields remove degrees of freedom from matter, thereby reducing the temperature.4 If the pressure relaxed, and compressive ionization was no longer tenable, the charges would recombine, releasing heat in the process. So all of the net energy is conserved, while the conversion of heat to electrostatic potential enables condensed matter when the hydrostatic pressure should have precluded it.   Exotic stars get a different treatment.     References 1. Prialnik, D. (2000): An Introduction to the Theory of Stellar Structure and Evolution. Cambridge University Press 2. Williams, J. P.; Blitz, L.; McKee, C. F. (1999): The Structure and Evolution of Molecular Clouds: from Clumps to Cores to the IMF. arXiv, astro-ph: 9902246 3. Richardson, J. D. (2000): The Solar Wind: Probing the Heliosphere with Multiple Spacecraft. COSPAR Colloquium on The Outer Heliosphere: The Next Frontier, Potsdam 4. Caflisch, R. et al. (2008): Accelerated Monte Carlo Methods for Coulomb Collisions. Bulletin of the American Physical Society, 53 (14)