Magnetic Pinches and Marklund Convection
The basic idea here is that Marklund convection within z-pinched plasma causes the aggregation of matter into stars.
by PersianPaladin » 2013-03-18, 07:11
Any neutral particles in even a 1.2% ionized plasma cross-sectional region are going to be influenced by electro-magnetic forces, albeit indirectly. They thus become overwhelmed by the electrical and magnetic forces at work.
Now, your contention that Marklund Convection only compresses ionized matter and that "ionized matter and condensed matter are mutually exclusive" is somewhat of a misnomer.
Thus, even the neutral (although we should really call them quasi-neutral plasma components) elements within the plasma cloud are dominated by the plasma processes.
And of course, further ionization can take place:-
Now, Marklund wrote that the matter in a Birkeland Current is sorted according to their ionization potential. The elements with the LOWEST ionization potential are brought closest to the axis of the current column. The convectional process via the viscosity layer between ionized and non-ionized matter referred to by Perratt et al, was expanded on in Marklund's paper. The elements brought to the axis are usually the heaviest elements. The intense heat and magnetic pressure in pinches is more than enough to create solid accretion of matter in dusty clouds, particularly when the discharge quenches. Experiments by plasma physicist C.J. Ransom, for example - found that "martian blueberries" can be formed in the lab when certain electrical discharges strike layers of hematite and compress them into balls. Plasmoids seem to form in interstellar clouds in the densest parts of plasma filaments surrounded by dust, and this filamentary form of star formation does seem to be the important method (as the mainstream keeps finding, albeit erroneously attributing to "sonic booms"). Once the discharge quenches the plasmoid may scatter or become cometary and perhaps start fissioning or ejecting matter which enters into a region of lower current-density. This can possibly account for binary and triple star systems as well. The ejection of plasmoids from a cosmic electric discharge was also alluded to by Halton Arp when he found out that Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN's) had a strong relationship (in terms of energy and brightness contours) to that of Quasars - as well as apparent visual connections that back up the statistical relationship. Active Galactic Nuclei may well be particularly electrically-stressed plasmoids. Now - the implications of this is that bright QSO's (quasar stellar objects) forming as a result of plasma fissioning should not preclude the likelihood of star-formation or even planetary formation via similar electrical processes.
Indeed, Arp suggested that quasars eventually form into galaxies - with star-formation also potentially occuring. This fits in with Perrat's galactic simulations via the interaction of Birkeland Currents.
Now, back to the predictions of Marklund and Perratt and Alfven's "critical ionization velocity" regarding the sorting of matter in field-aligned currents:-
Why is this significant? If the C IV is found with such a width-profile in galaxies then we aren't merely talking about mainly gravito-centric processes orbiting the center of galaxies.
Regarding star-formation, we have this 2011 presentation by the European Space Agency. I am sure Alfven and EU proponents in general, would find a lot of problems with the appeals to Magnetohydrodynamic processes and gravity-dependent fluid-dynamic processes that are used: -
Instead, voltage differences in a plasma and double-layers are likely to be dominant. Astrophysicists with their MHD and gravito-accretion models ignored Alfven's appeals to consider double-layers as a unique stellar object back in the 80's. While Alfven did push for a certain gravito-influenced star formation model earlier, in his latter days he became less certain and was more open to EM forces as being dominant.
Of course, gravitation could have a role in these plasma filamentary clouds where star formation is being observed - but this is via the process of "gravito-electrodynamics" that applies to plasmas and which EU proponents recognise:-
Not the traditional view of stellar accretion and the language of fluid-dynamics and "neutral" gases. And you know the funny thing that Anthony Perratt pointed out a few years back? He said that the astrophysicists who were developing "accretion-disc models" were constantly failing to get results without using the same electrodynamic plasma functions and models that Perratt had used at Los Alamos Labs. And of course now - we see astronomers becoming "surprised" when we see star formation confined to consistent-width plasma filaments with the strongest star formation at intersectional regions. Precisely the prediction of EU, which shows that the densest proximity of current sheaths creates a focus of energy via the pinch-mechanism. The radio-wave emitting filaments of "dark matter" also seem to form galaxies at the densest intersectional regions of filaments. Coincidence? No. This has also been predicted. Of course, the Bennett Pinch is ignored by mainstreamers. Too bad!
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