© Lloyd

Below are my ratings of NPA papers' abstracts on Charge from 1 to 9. 1 means least promising; 9 means most promising. See http://www.worldsci.org/php/index.php?tab0=Find and enter "Charge" after "Description" to find the papers. Or enter title or author.

CHARGE

*7*The End of Electric Charge and Electric Current as We Know Them, Part 1 (2011) by Ivor Catt

_For 43 years it has not been noticed, even by the author, that oscilloscope pictures (reproduced here) undermine the concepts of electric charge and electric current, and with them a large part of 20th century scientific theory.

_We see two electric currents traveling in opposite directions down a single conductor.

_Conventional electric current is not fit for the purpose...

*5*Energy and Charge (1998) by Roland H Dishington

_In a previous article, "The Extended Electron," (ESJ 23:17-19), Dishington described matter and space in terms of disproportionate distributions of the aether.

_In the current article, he accounts for energy and charge in terms of distortions of the aether.

*4*An Analysis of Energy and Charge (2008) by Arnold G Gulko

_It is interesting to compare energy and charge, for the two are sometimes confused.

_To illustrate this confusion, in quantum mechanics the electron is considered to be a point charge, though this writer does not agree.

_However, this simple assumption has not only confused those who accept quantum mechanics, but it has also confused others who neglect to recognize that this mistake is part of what is today perceived as science.

_So it infects even those who find the assumptions and non-objective analysis of quantum mechanics unacceptable.

*4*Correct Visualization of Forces Between Balanced Zero-Net-Charge Atomic Particles (2004) by Morton F Spears

_In standard introductory physics textbooks, one finds the following claim: The positively charged proton and the negatively charged electron in an atom such as hydrogen cancel each other for all outside generation of electrostatic forces.

_This claim is incorrect due to a non-reciprocal characteristic of atoms.

_This paper provides a brief explanation of this experimentally determined non-reciprocal effect using simple hydrogen atom examples for concrete illustration.

*4*Derivation of a Universal Electromagnetic Force Law for Finite-Size Elastic Charged Particles (2005) by Dr Charles William Lucas Jr

_A new electromagnetic force law for real finite-size elastic charged particles is derived by solving simultaneously the fundamental empirical laws of classical electrodynamics, i.e. Gauss's laws, Ampere's generalized law, Faraday's law, Lorentz's law, and Lenz's law, assuming Galilean invariance and noting that both the superposition principle for electromagnetic fields and the point-particle assumption assumed by Maxwell are experimentally false.

_This derived version of the electromagnetic force law contains extensions to Weber's force law that account for gravity, inertia, relativistic effects including radiation, and also the non-radial terms that explain the experimentally observed curling of plasma currents.

_The derived force law satisfies Newton's third law, conservation of energy and momentum, and Mach's Principle.

_Galilean invariance is shown to mathematically require that the electromagnetic force be a contact force based on field extensions of the charge instead of action-at-a-distance and is used to derive the Lorentz force law.

_From the perspective of the derived electromagnetic potential between two moving charges, it appears that the 'relativistic' corrections to the Coulomb static potential are just geometrical terms that take into account the effective distance between the charges due to the corkscrew motion of the moving charges and the induced field effects of Lenz's law.

*3*The Universal Fundamental Charge (e) and Spin (h/4?) (2008) by Thomas N Lockyer

_It is a great mystery that the electron, muon, and proton all have exactly the same fundamental charge (e) of (1.602176487 x 10-19 Ampere-seconds) and spin angular momentum of exactly h / 4? = 6.272858141258 x 10-35 m2-kg-s-1 (Joule-seconds), when, at the same time, each has its own unique mass (in kilograms) and magnetic moment (in Ampere meter squared).

*3*Aberration and the Electric Force on a Moving Charged Particle (1991) by Prof David M Drury

_The possibility that the electric force on a charge particle moving through a static electric field acts at the optical aberration angle instead of parallel to the electric field is investigated.

_Simple reasoning leads to the conclusion that if the force does act at the aberration angle, then the Lorentz force equation must be modified to include a force component acting in the opposite direction of the particle velocity.

_Such a force component is proposed in this paper.

_The effect of this additional component is calculated and is found to be large enough to be observed in the laboratory with a low-energy experiment.

*3*Characteristics of High-Density Charge Clusters: A Theoretical Model (1996) by Shang-Xian Jin, Hal Fox

_A mathematical model of charged clusters (Shoulders' EV's) is presented that shows the stability is due to a helical vortex ring possessing an extraordinary poloidal circulation.

_In this nonrelativistic calculation, the poloidal filament would have to be thin.

_A spherical electron cluster is unstable and would ten dot form into a toroid by a force balance relationship.

_The calculation shows that the energy density of the poloidal filament in a charge cluster is a hundred times higher than in a supernova explosion.

*3*Particle Structure Causes Discrete Fundamental Charge e (2012) by Thomas N Lockyer

_Paul Dirac, in 1931, attempted to determine why the fundamental charge has exactly the same value (e) for both the electron and proton.

_His attempt was mathematical, and he (mistakenly) theorized there had to be a fixed value "magnetic monopole".

_I find that the electron, positron, muon and proton, all are constructed with geometry, that fixes the value of fundamental charge, the same for all.

_Basic particle structures are outlined here and the fundamental charge is shown to be a constant, because charge density times the particle current loop area, is equal to the fundamental charge (e) exactly, independent of cube particle size.

*3*Quantum Riddles Part I: Charge, a Case for Causality (2004) by Constance Perry Phillips, J Michael Robinson

_To re-establish the universality of electromagnetism and provide a quantized description of charge and magnetic field energies, a wave-particle model is proposed for fermions.

_Like magnetism, charge is a generated field energy, not an inherent property of the particle substance.

_It is formed as spherical wave energy fields within a fermion.

_The negative and positive directional features of this energy are produced by a 1:2 intrinsic rotation of a disc-like particle substructure about two orthogonal axes.

_Fluid-like character of the disc provides the asymmetry required for fermionic spin.

_The intrinsic wave and particle substructures within a fermion provide the two quantum-statistical behaviors that occur within an atom, solving several quantum riddles.

*2*How do Neutral Photons Carry the Sign & Value of Charge? (2002) by Dr Vyacheslav N Streltsov

_Virtual field quanta carry an interaction between particles.

_The opinion is expressed that the difference between the fields of positive and negative charges, can be conditioned by the helical differences of the corresponding virtual photons.

_But some difficulties arise when one tries to explain the mechanism by which the very charge value is carried.

*2*But There Are Accelerating Charges (2005) by Leslee A Kulba

_Some unusual methods of generating light, like all others, are explained in terms of accelerating charges.

_Electron de-excitations may be the only source of visible light.

*2*C, Charged Particles, Electrodynamics, Radiation and All That (2006) by Dr Clarence L Dulaney

_Basically, C arises, along with all the other topics in the title from relative motion of charged particles.

_In 1893, J J Thomson showed theoretically that C should be the limiting speed of a charged particle.

_He attributed this to an increase of mass of the particle with speed.

_Weberian Electrodynamics is based on the relative motion of charged particles, and accounts for the radiation from accelerated charged particles.

_A Einstein is incorrect in stating that the speed of light in free space is not affected by the speed of the source.

_This is shown by the "red shift" of the spectrum of stars that are moving away from the earth-bound observer.

*2*Ives-Stillwell, Variable Light Velocity, and Variable Electric Charge, in Terms of a Postulated Theory of Radiation (1998) by Dr John E Chappell Jr

_The formula for variability of energy in light particles emitted by a moving source was confirmed by Ives and Stilwell in 1938 only for line-of-flight and perpendicular directions.

_It can be proven by basic trigonometry that the general formula for all directions is identical.

_In this analysis the gamma factor modifies c, but not d, t, or m.

_Possibly this result could be used to show why force on a moving charge varies as it does.

*2*On Experimental Confirmation of the Einstein Equation and the Charge-Mass Repulsive Force (2010) by Dr Chung Y Lo

_Einstein gives three predictions to support general relativity.

_However, the Einstein equation, which was first derived by Hilbert, has not been accurately confirmed beyond what the Maxwell-Newton Approximation can do.

_The gravitational redshifts, the bending light, and radar echo delay can be obtained from the Maxwell-Newton Approximation derived from Einstein's equivalence principle.

_As Gullstrand suspected, it is proven that there is no dynamic solution and thus the perihelion of Mercury cannot be derived from the Einstein equation.

_Moreover, the Hulse-Taylor experiment of binary pulsars actually supports a modified Einstein equation.

_So far, the only exception is the derivation of the metric for a charged particle because the electromagnetic energy-stress tensor is involved.

_It has been shown that this metric implies a repulsive force mq2/r3 between a charge q and a mass m, separated with a distance r.

_Thus, the experimental confirmation of this neutral force provides the only case to verify the static Einstein equation.

_Although it has been shown experimentally that a metal ball becomes lighter after charged with electrons, more detailed data are needed to confirm the repulsive force and distinguish its formula from claims of other theories.

*2*A Review Of High-Density Charge Clusters (2001) by Hal Fox, Vasily Baraboshkin

The greatest scientific discovery of the 20th Century is the multiple, independent discovery of high-density electron charge clusters (HDCC) and their uses.

_The HDCC technology has been independently discovered and advanced by Shoulders and Gleeson in the U.S.; by Alexander Llyanok in Belarus; by Mesyats and Baraboshkin in Ekaterinburg, Russia; and apparently by Oleg V.

_Gritskevitch in Vladivostok, Russia.

_Charge clusters are developed in low pressure gases, in the atmosphere, and in liquids under special conditions.

_The progress of HDCC is reviewed, the sources cited, and the future projected.

This paper aka "A Summary of The Latest Developments Of High-Density, Charge-Cluster Technology".

*2*Imaginary Charge and Gravitational-Electric Space (1992) by Dr T Chang

_We consider the gravitational mass of a particle as an imaginary charge.

_A two-dimensionasl sub-space, gravitational-electric (G-E) space, is introduced to combine the imaginary gravitational charge with the real electric charge.

_By using this new concept, the gravitational field equations for weak gravity and low velocities can then be written in a form analogous to Maxwell's equations.

_With this arrangement the gravitational and electromagnet fields can be unified in the G-E sub-space, which provides a new approach to study the properties of the gravitational field.

_As a consequence, the gravitational energy density and energy flux would exhibit new properties with this formation.

*2*Mechanism of Attraction between Like-Charged Particles in Aqueous Solution (2009) by Ekaterina Nagornyak, Hyok Yoo, Dr Gerald Pollack - Soft Matter 5: 3850-3857 (2009).

_Although it has been long known that like-charged particles attract one another in aqueous media, the mechanism underlying this counter-intuitive phenomenon has remained controversial.

_We tested the hypothesis put forth long ago by Langmuir and again by Feynman and by Ise, that the attraction between like-charged entities lies in an intermediate of unlike charges.

_Tests were facilitated by the observation that the attractive forces could be confirmed between widely separated particles of macroscopic size.

_Two approaches showed comparable results.

_In the first, pH-sensitive dyes showed intermediate zones of opposite charge: an accumulation of protons was found between negatively charged spheres, whereas between positively charged spheres the intermediate zone contained OH- groups.

_In the second and complementary approach, microelectrode measurements showed that in between negatively charged spheres, the electrical potential was relatively positive, whereas between positively charged spheres it was relatively negative.

_Hence, both approaches confirm theoretical expectations.

_The large number of unlike charges lying in between the like-charged spheres may come from the build-up of the recently reported "exclusion zone" surrounding each particle.

*1*Introduction and Acceptance of a Classical Charge Fiber Model (CFM) of Elementary Particles Evaluated by Means of an Online Tutorial-Based Survey (2008) by Dr Gerald M Brown

_The introduction of a new classical model of elementary particles by Lucas and Bergman is studied using an online survey instrument.

_The model is based on finite-size, elastic, charged particles that take the form of charge fibers.

_The Charge Fiber Model of Elementary Particles (CFM) constitutes a fundamental departure from the current paradigm of Quantum Mechanics (QM) and the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles.

_The survey familiarizes respondents with the basic principles and claims of the new model by means of an online tutorial, and queries respondents to guage their knowledge and opinion of the model (http://www.commonsensescience.org/survey).

_The analysis of the survey describes how experts in the field, or at least those who took the time to respond, regard the original and sweeping claims of the CFM.

_The response rate varied from a very low of 1.1% to a high of 29% among diverse scientific communities.

_This paper does not endorse the model, but considers the broader issue of how a theory representing a major departure from the status quo may be disseminated, perceived and accepted (or rejected) during its early stages.

_These issues are relevant to the ongoing development of a comprehensive young-earth creation model whose proponents, even with solid scientific and academic credentials, face a continuous struggle against the accepted scientific positions on origins, evolution and the age of the earth.

_Recognizing that scientific paradigms change over time provides incentive to evaluate models on the basis of their usefulness and to articulate our opinions of them in a manner that is both effective and nonoffensive.

**Spinning Charged Ring Model of Electron Yielding Anomalous Magnetic Moment (1990) by David L Bergman, Dr Paul Wesley

**Spinning Charged Ring Model of Elementary Particles (1991) by David L Bergman

**The Spinning Charged Ring (2005) by Dr Domina Eberle Spencer, Dr Uma Y Shama, Terri L Mascardo, Dr Philip J Mann

**The Stability of a Spinning Charged Ring (2007) by Dr Domina Eberle Spencer, Dr Uma Y Shama, Terri L Mascardo, Dr Philip J Mann

**Charge Clusters in Action (1999) by Ken Shoulders, Steve Shoulders

**Charge Clusters: The Basis of Zero-Point Energy Inventions (1997) by Dr Moray B King

**Charge Clusters: The Work of Ken Shoulders (2005) by Bill Zebuhr, Ken Shoulders (Subject)

**New Spinning Charged Ring Model of the Electron (1992) by David L Bergman

**Observations on the Role of Charge Clusters in Nuclear Cluster Reactions (1996) by Ken Shoulders, Steve Shoulders

**A Close Look at Charge Deposition from a Pulsed Tesla Coil System (2002) by Richard L Hull, Scott Fusare

**A Description of Physical Reality Without Mass Stuff, Charge Stuff, and Field Stuff (2011) by Dr Gary L Johnson

**A Possible Explanation of a Force Between a Charged Metal Foil and a Current Carrying Wire (1985) by Dr Ralph Sansbury

**Charge Interaction as a Problem of Two States (2012) by Dmitri V Plotnikov, Simon Plotnikov

**Charged Particle Oscillating Near a Capacitor (1999) by Prof Andre K T Assis

**Classical Electrodynamics of Point-Like Charges Without Divergences (2006) by Prof Alexander L Kholmetskii

**Does Charge Decrease With Increasing Speed of a Charged Particle? (1998) by Dr Clarence L Dulaney

**Force Exerted on a Stationary Charge By a Moving Current Loop (1993) by Prof Oleg D Jefimenko

**High Potential, Alternating E-Field Electrostatic Charge Transfer (2003) by Louis Balint

**Impulse Gravity Generator Based on Charged Y Ba2Cu3O7−y Superconductor with Composite Crystal Structure (2001) by Dr Yevgeny Podkletnov, Giovanni Modanese

**Instantaneous Interaction between Charged Particles (2005) by Dr Wolfgang Engelhardt

**NASA\'s Space-Probes Pioneer Anomaly and the Mass-Charge Repulsive Force (2010) by Dr Chung Y Lo

**Nonconservation of Charge and Energy as Consequences of Contracted Length Noncovariance (1998) by Dr Vyacheslav N Streltsov

**Particle "Charge Inertia" in a Magnetic Field (2006) by Jia-Qiang Cheng

**Prediction of the Masses of Charged Leptons (2009) by Gordon L Ziegler, Iris Irene Koch

**Reformulation of Coulomb and Newton Forces, Exerted by a Source Charge, on a Moving Test Charge Part I: Coulomb Force Exerted by a Source Charge, on a Moving Test Charge (2008) by Prof Dr Tolga Yarman

**Reformulation of Coulomb and Newton Forces, Exerted by a Source Charge, on a Moving Test Charge: Part II: Newton Force Exerted by a Celestial Body

**SR Theory of Electrodynamics for Relatively Moving Charges (2009) by James Keele

**The Electromagnetic Momentum of a Charged Particle in Weber's Theory (1997) by Prof David M Drury

**The Electromechanical Charge Shuttle: Electrostatics in Action (2004) by Reg Hackshaw

**The End of Electric Charge and Electric Current as We Know Them, Part 1 (2011) by Ivor Catt

**The Force between a Dipole and a Moving Point Charge (1997) by Matthew Cross

**The Mass Deficiency Correction to Classical and Quantum Mechanical Descriptions: Alike Metric Change and Quantization Nearby an Electric Charge, and a Celestial Body Part I: A New General Equation of Motion for Gravitationally, or Electrically Bound Particles (2006) by Prof Dr Tolga Yarman, Vladislav B Rozanov

**The Motion of an Electric Charge in a Uniform Electric Field: Three Viewpoints (1998) by Dr Domina Eberle Spencer, Dr Uma Y Shama, Dr Philip J Mann

**The Nature and Principle of Charge Interaction and Coulomb\'s Law (2010) by Prof Zifeng Li

**The Problem of Surface Charges and Fields in Coaxial Cables and its Importance for Relativistic Physics (1997) by Prof Andre K T Assis, J I Cisneros

**The Role of \"Action-at-a-Distance\" in the Electro-Magnetic Field Radiation Produced by an Accelerated Charge (1997) by Dr Andrew E Chubykalo

**The Spatial Behavior of Coulomb and Newton Forces, yet Reigning between Exclusively Static Charge, is the Same Must, Drawn by the Special Theory of The Spatial Behavior of Coulomb and Newton Forces, Yet Reigning Between Exclusively Static Charges, is the Same Must, Drawn by the Special Theory of The Speed of Light: Cumulative Instantaneous Forces at a Distance (2012) by Dr Ralph Sansbury

**Variable Electrical Charge Cosmological Redshift (1994) by Robert S Fritzius

**What is the Electrical Charge? Coulomb?s Law (2000) by Dimiter G Stoinov