My Ratings of these papers are from 1-9, 1 meaing least promising; 9 meaning most promising. The papers are located at http://www.worldsci.org/php/index.php?tab0=Find after entering "Push" after "Description" or enter title or author.
*7*The Electro-Magnetic Radiation Pressure (EMRP) Gravity Theory (2006) by Ing Xavier Borg
_This paper aims at providing a satisfying theory for the yet unknown mechanism for gravity.
_It is well known that the law of gravitation was mathematically described as a field theory by Einstein's general theory of relativity as early as 1916, however, although I have no doubt that its mathematics is correct, GR offers absolutely no mechanism to describe why gravity works the way it does.
_It is hereby proposed that extremely high frequency, electromagnetic waves sourced by diffuse unpolarized cosmic waves in the upper gamma frequency spectrum, sometimes also referred to as zero point energy pervades all space.
_Radiation pressure imbalance of such highly penetrating extragalactic incoming radiation, acting through all matter is held responsible for pushing matter together.
_The idea that gravity is a push from the outside, was first proposed by Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, a close friend of Newton, and dates back to 1690.
_He proposed the fundamentals of a simple particle theory of gravity.
_However, we know about Fatio's work, mainly from references to it within Georges-Louis Le Sage's work in 1724, which is well known for advancing the same theory to the public.
_Le Sage's ultramundane particles (a sea of highly penetrating tiny particles coming from beyond the earth) provided a physical connection that pushes masses together.
_Le Sage is also described as a push gravity theory and is generally discredited because of its inelastic interactions, which would tend to heat up and slow down the body.
_This would cause planetary orbits to decay and the planets themselves to heat up and increase in mass.
_To avoid these problems, Newton, and later Maxwell, assumed that bodies must produce a stress in the aether about them of such nature as to account for gravitation, but they were unable to imagine any physical cause for the stress.
_Others have also suggested ultra low frequencies to replace LeSage's particles to describe the same effect.
_The push gravity hypothesis offers great simplicity and physical clarity, and many researchers felt that the main idea is in the right direction.
_It gave rise to numerous published works, amongst which we have those of Lorentz, H.Poincare, F Brush, Secchi, Leray, V Thomson, Schramm, Tait, Isenkrahe, Preston, Jarolimek, Waachy, Rynsanek, Darwin, Majorana, J K Harms, Sulaiman.
_During one of his lectures, Richard Feynman also showed his interest in such theories because they provide a mechanism for gravity that eliminates the magical action at a distance problem with today's definition of the attraction of masses.
_It seems that due to recent interest and acceptance of zero point fields, the push gravity theory may be on its rise again.
_Present researchers include J Kierein, H Arp, J Evans, Frans van Luteren, E J Aiton, V V Radzievski and I I Kagalnikova, S V Byers, Tom Van Flandern, V Slabinski, M R Edwards, T Jaakkola, K E Veselov, B Mingst, P Stowe, P Adamut, Roberto de Andrade Martins, G T Gillies, C S Unnikrishnan, H H v Borzeszkowski, H J Treder, M Kokus, V Buonomano, G D Hathaway and of course myself Ing X Borg.
_The EMRP theory proposed here, is explained in terms of electromagnetic waves, however it is well known that EM waves show both wave and particle behaviour, and the EMRP theory can be easily translated in terms of extremely energetic photons if one wishes to, and thus become an elaborated version of Le Sage's theory.
_Most importantly, the push gravity concept has been retained as it applies equally well to both particles and Poynting vector qualities.
_Many good ideas come from the past work of many other researchers, which unfortunately have not been able to complete a satisfactory theory during their life time, though some of them came quite close.
_For this reason, I like to quote Newton's own statement in one of his letters to Robert Hooke: If I have seen further it is by standing on ye shoulders of Giants.
_Said that, I have also to say that seeing further is one thing, but kicking off an established paradigm is far from what one can expect to achieve in a single lifetime.
*6*Logic of \'Push Gravity\' (According to \'Hypothesis on MATTER\') (2012) by Nainan K Varghese
_An all-encompassing universal medium, made of "real" matter particles, fills entire space outside "basic 3D matter particles".
_It is homogeneous, isotropic and self-stabilizing multiple-entity.
_Because of its inherent compression, it squeezes all "basic 3D matter particles" by direct contact.
_This all-around push action on 3D matter by universal medium is "gravitation".
_Strength of gravitation is proportional to the extent of universal medium, away from the point of action.
_Extent of universal medium on outer sides of two basic 3D matter particles is always more (with correspondingly higher gravitation) than the extent of universal medium in between them (with correspondingly lower gravitation).
_Greater pushes from outer sides and lower pushes from in between, compel basic 3D matter particles to move towards each other.
_Cause of this motion appears as "attraction" between the basic 3D matter particles.
_This phenomenon is interpreted as "gravitational attraction" between them.
_"Gravitational attraction" is a minor by-product of separate gravitational push-actions on each of the basic 3D matter particles.
_Magnitude of gravitational attraction between two macro bodies is the resultant of gravitational attractions between their constituent basic 3D matter particles.
_It is the differences in extents of universal medium on either side of constituent basic 3D matter particles that produce gravitational attraction between two macro bodies, rather than shadow-effects on each other.
*6*A New Equation for Gravity (2009) by Bob de Hilster
_This paper describes the development of a new equation for gravity.
_The theory behind the equation is based on the work of Georges L Le Sage.
_He proposed that there are "ultramundane corpuscles" (particles) coming at us from space.
_Most of these particles pass through objects, but a small number of them push the object.
_This causes a reduction in the number of particles that leave the object.
_If the object is in space, then it is being pushed on all sides equally and there is no net force.
_In the case of the earth and the moon, the number of particles that pass through the earth to the moon are reduced.
_So there are fewer particles pushing the moon away from the earth than there are particles pushing the moon toward the earth.
_This net force is gravity.
_This new equation for gravity is based on this theory and is developed using four postulates.
*6*Neomechanical Gravitation Theory (2012) by Dr Glenn Borchardt, Stephen J Puetz
_This paper proposes that gravity is caused by the actions of non-isotropic, heterogeneous distributions of aether particles throughout the universe.
_The Gravitational Pressure Gradient of a massive body describes these divergent aether distributions.
_The activity and density of free aether particles are greatest in the so-called vacuum of intergalactic space; they are least where the density of baryonic matter is greatest.
_This gradient is analogous to the atmospheric pressure gradient that surrounds Earth, but in reverse.
_Aethereal pressure increases with distance from the center of Earth just as it does for all celestial vortices.
_Ordinary baryonic matter consists of aether complexes that limit the free motion of aether particles, displacing them and producing what is, in effect, a sort of vacuum for aether.
_In addition to displacement, neomechanical interactions involving the absorption and emission of motion cause decreases in the activity of proximal aether, resulting in the pressure gradient.
_The result is that gravitation is a universal, but local, phenomenon.
_This proposal is consistent with the assumption of infinity, which underlies neomechanics and the belief that there are no true pulls in nature, as recognized in Newton's laws of motion.
_It avoids the problems of non-local causes of gravitation conjectured by Le Sage.
_The layering produced by a rapidly rotating celestial vortex during its early evolution pushes baryonic matter toward its axis.
_Satellites stay in orbit because distal aether pressure is greater than proximal aether pressure.
_The theory also predicts that the velocity of light is a function of aether density, in tune with gravitational and galactic redshift measurements.
*5*A Case for Pushing Gravity (1979) by Dr.
_Harold Aspden 1979, 2nd place award.
_Theories of gravitation need to rely upon relativistic methodology to be acceptable to established physicists.
_Does the idea of pushing gravity conform with the relativistic doctrine? There is a connection.
_Everyone now accepts that there is validity in the formula E = Mc2 and that electrons comply with the relativistic formula for mass increase with speed.
_These are fundamental in relativity.
_However, mathematically, there is a strict connection between these two formulae.
_It is that accelerated mass must not radiate energy as it is all needed to sustain the increase in energy associated with the relativistic mass increase.
_Thus zero net energy radiation is essential for accelerated mass.
_A proof of this is to be found in Professor H A Wilson's physics textbook "Modern Physics" published in several editions by Blackie.
_But we know that an accelerated electron radiates energy continuously according to the Larmor formula and have difficulty reconciling this with the fact that energy exchanges seem usually to be quantum exchanges.
_The answer to these conflicting aspects of accepted physics surely lies in recognizing that there is no net energy radiation from isolated charge according to the Larmor formula.
_There can be collective radiation from a multiplicity of charges carrying current in an antenna, but there need to be no net radiation from an isolated charge.
_Then we can hypothesize that there is electromagnetic energy outflow according to the Larmor formula and an exactly balancing energy inflow (say a neutrino flux) assuring that isolated charges conform with our understanding of energy radiation processes.*5*Superlight, a Dynamic Aether, Explains Pushing Gravity and Inertia, and Says No Neutrinos, Gluons or Dark Matter (2010) by Dr John V Milewski
_When Maxwell equations is solved using negative number an new form of radiation is identified.
_This is a radiation I call Superlight and it is Magnetioelectric in nature.
_It travels at a speed 10 billion times faster the light.
_It is generated in black holes by energy exchange from magnetic monopoles by a process similar how electromagnetic radiation is generated when electron (Electric monopoles) change energy stated in dropping from one orbit to a lower one.
_With about 200 billion Galaxies producing Superlight , this forms a "Sea of Energy" we are living in.
_Some call it Vacuum energy, Zero point energy, Dark Energy, Chi , Neuos ,Orgone and many other names but it's all the same specials form of magnetic energy.
_I believe the action of Superlight produces all forces and is the unified energy field the Einstein was looking for in his later days.
_It explains why Gravity is a push and is the same force that holds the nucleus together.
_It is only the geometry and density of matter that changes the force.
_Gravity and inertia are not intrinsic properties of matter but a force artifact that resulting from the presence of the all prevailing fields of Superlight.
_It also explain why there is no need for Neutrinos, Gluons, and Dark Matter.
_It explains that the missing mass of the universe in not missing but in the form of energy and that energy is the all prevailing field of Magnetioelectric Energy or Superlight.
_Come hear how it all comes about. "One Source One Force"
*5*Gravitation as a Compton Effect Redshift of Long Wavelength Background Radiation (2007) by John W Kierein
_A background of very long wavelength radiation is predicted from a static universe with Compton effect redshift.
_The interaction of this radiation with massive bodies produces gravity in a 'push' process as suggested by Brush.
*5*Paeps: External Gravity Particles (The Universe is Otherwise: Part 1) (2008) by Paul Schroeder
_When contemplating attraction gravity, force lines transfer force toward the gravitating body.
_Pulling/attraction gravity suggests a straight centripetal force line between a body and it's orbital in space.
_But more occurs between two bodies and I will explain how gravity provides the motions.
_Overall, attraction gravity hinders understanding.
_Its force is limited to the straight line.
_A pushing gravity force is not directionally limited.
_The concept of gravity having a metaphysical "attraction" nature needs to be corrected.
_It is time to look at gravity as having a physical causality.
_Doing so clarifies its logical system and properly specifies how it functions.
_Think of it as particles pushing on things.
_Doing so reveals exciting concepts.
*5*A Flowing View of the Nature and Geometry of Space (2014) by Paul Schroeder
_What follows considers many little physical issues for which a solution leads to a development of pushing gravity.
_The idea that Newtonian gravity is viewed as an attraction and Relativity gravity is space bending retards logic.
_A force is something that provides a source for motion.
_Gravity is called a force and therefore it provides the impetus rather than an attraction for motion.
_Physical interactions imply contact resulting in a pressure from a push.
_Preparing to view what in my view is a logical - pushing form of gravity suggests contemplating the structural nature of the universe and of space.
*4*Illustrations for the Stellar Pushing Re-Radiation Cuantum Theory Gravitation (1983) by Dr William G Carnahan
_The explosive pushing energy from any one sun or star diverges as illustrated in diagram 1.
_However, when space is surrounded by stellar sources, dynamic energy converges at every point inside the space.
_Thus, we can pick the point of any arrow drawn in diagram 2 as a place where energy converges from every surrounding star.
*4*Impulse Gravity Generator Based on Charged Y Ba2Cu3O7−y Superconductor with Composite Crystal Structure (2001) by Dr Yevgeny Podkletnov, Giovanni Modanese
_The detection of apparent anomalous forces in the vicinity of high-Tc superconductors under non equilibrium conditions has stimulated an experimental research in which the operating parameters of the experiment have been pushed to values higher than those employed in previous attempts.
_The results confirm the existence of an unexpected physical interaction.
_An apparatus has been constructed and tested in which the superconductor is subjected to peak currents in excess of 104 A, surface potentials in excess of 1 MV , trapped magnetic field up to 1 T, and temperature down to 40 K.
_In order to produce the required currents a high voltage discharge technique has been employed.
_Discharges originating from a superconducting ceramic electrode are accompanied by the emission of radiation which propagates in a focused beam without noticeable attenuation through different materials and exerts a short repulsive force on small movable objects along the propagation axis.
_Within the measurement error (5 to 7 %) the impulse is proportional to the mass of the objects and independent on their composition.
_It therefore resembles a gravitational impulse.
_The observed phenomenon appears to be absolutely new and unprecedented in the literature.
_It cannot be understood in the framework of general relativity.
_A theory is proposed which combines a quantum gravity approach with anomalous vacuum fluctuations.
*4*Experimental Procedure to Discriminate Between Pull Gravity and EMRP Push Gravity Theory (2009) by Ing Xavier Borg
_The aim of this experiment is to create a direct conflict between EMRP push gravity, and Newton's pull gravity.
_What is gravity is the question that has intrigued many scientists and philosophers alike, but for lack of any experimental evidence has never been satisfactorily answered.
_All we presently find in mainstream physics is no more than an absurd hypothesis of a pull type gravity innate within all matter, which surprisingly enough, is a concept specifically denied by Newton himself to whom the concept is most often erroneously ascribed.
_The main problem with past experiments is that both simple push and simple pull theories give the same results.
_The paper shows the theory behind the original way in which an innate pulling force and an external electromagnetic pushing force may finally be discriminated.
_Full experimental setup details and experimental results are given for replication purposes.
*4*Creating Matter from EM Radiation (2013) by Paul Schroeder
The goal here is to probe more deeply into one aspect of External Gravity theory.
_I intend to expand on the connection with the EM spectrum.
_The source of gravity is pushing beams and it duplicates the properties of all forms of radiation.
_Gravity radiation exists as the beginning of the EM scale.
_At the far end the spectrum boarders on including matter.
_This implies that matter consists of some wave structure.
_The overall structure of space is radiation.
_Matter is a result of distortions within that medium.
_Essentially matter is created by the intersecting of beams and exists as modified and interconnected versions of radiation beams.
_This is therefore also Beam Theory and replaces Quantum Theory as a module for future atomic analyses.