

NPA Papers & Abstracts on PHOTON
© Lloyd
NPA Papers on the PHOTON Tentatively Ranked 19, where 1 means seemingly least promising and 9 means most promising. The highest ranking here is 7. Papers can be found at http://www.worldsci.org/php/index.php?tab0=Find by entering "photon" after "Description" or by entering titles or author names.
*7*CMBR  A RYDBERG PHOTON PRECESSION IN STARS (2013) by Francis Viren Fernandes _The Rydberg photon whose radius corresponds with twice Bohr's radius is postulated to be the reason for the cosmic microwave background frequency. _Two great works on black body radiation by Planck and Wein enabled this progression of thought: The process by which frequency is given and received by the Rydberg photon. _Hydrogen atoms in stars are comprised of Rydberg photons. _The stars radiate CMBR. *7*The CMBR WaveMaker Rydberg Photon (2011) by Francis Viren Fernandes _You see, stars must be the source of CMBR. _This was the thought. _And hydrogen comprises all stars. _And Rydberg photons 69 million comprise each Hatom. _And pair production leads to electronpositron pairs. _And the gamma factor is got to do with photodynamics. _Then the pendulum which is the swing of reality that yields the Rydberg number. _And the Rydberg photon is the reason for CMBR. *7*Light Is Transmitted By Photons (2010) by Robert A Kerr _Dr Glen Borchardt is a great Physicist. _However, he makes one significant mistake when he states that "Light is not transmitted by photons". _Photons are the smallest detectable mass particle. _They are detected and quantitated by their pressure which is temperature. _Equilibrium establishes that they have the highest velocity of any detectable mass particle. _Their energy is transferred to all particles of greater mass by impact. _The energy transmitted is limited by photon reflection time. _Hence, the reflection time is least for the most massive particle. _Therefore, the transferred energy is greatest to the smallest target particle which is the electron. _Particle mass concentrations form from the mutual shielding between particles. _As they grow the particles are compressed until their interstices are smaller than the impacting particles. _A larger electron particle has been formed. _The electron is the only fluid particle that reflects photon impulse. _The same fielding mechanics forms the proton whose interstices are penetrated by both photons and electrons. _All concentrations of mass are unlimited in size until their external pressure can not contain their mass content. _They burst into nova's releasing their internal pressure. _This creates the cycle of the universe. _It's existence and the related mechanics is substantiated by the fluid behavior of a thunder storm. _Photon pressure (temperature) evaporates water forming smaller droplets. _The smaller droplets increase the surface area adsorbing electrons. _The vapor rises because water droplets are formed from two hydrogen and one oxygen atom which is lighter than atmospheric particles. _As atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude the water vapor forms smaller droplets separated by electron pressure. _The smaller droplets form clouds. _Further cooling increases droplet size reducing droplet surface area causing lightning bolts. _The larger droplets produce rain and increase electron pressure. _The voltage velocity is less than the velocity of light and the thunder occurs with the speed sound. _The lightning bolt emits photons traveling at light velocity. _This proves that light is transmitted by photons. QED *6*A Minimum Photon Rest Mass Using Planck\'s Constant and Discontinuous Electromagnetic Waves (1974) by Dr William M Honig _A vortex ring model of the photon, sustained by a two fluid ZPE model, expands at the speed of light and has implications for nonlocal connectivity. *6*An Absolute Space Interpretation (with NonZero Photon Mass) of the NonNull Results of MichelsonMorley and Similar Experiments: An Extension of Vigier's Mass for the Photon (1997) by Patrick J Fleming _It is argued that the small ether drifts first observed by Michelson and Morley may be compatible with either an extension of Newtonian Mechanics, or with Vigier's interpretation of relativity in absolute space, provided that a small photon rest mass (of the order of 1035 gr for yellow light) be introduced. *6*On the Relative Rest Mass of the Photon (2010) by Mohamed Elmansour Hassani _Photon relative rest mass is important because it may play a role in particle physics and cosmology. _The purpose of the present work is to show conclusively that the photon really has relative rest mass. _The argument takes into account the international definition of the reference meter and the empirical value of light speed c0 = 299792458 m/s in local vacuum, and considers the quantity c = 3 x 10^8 m/s as a specific kinematical parameter having a constant value, with dimension speed. _These considerations are combined with the Galilean relativity principle (and its Einsteinian extension), which claimed that absolute rest does not exist; i.e. that "rest" and uniform motion have only relative character. _Then with the help of the latest experiments on light speed reduction to 17 m/s, we find that the photon has relative rest mass. _It is worthwhile to notice that within the framework of the formalism developed here, c0 is only a critical speed, not an upperlimit speed like the c in standard special relativity theory. *6*Photons and the Change in Mass of Moving Bodies (1999) by James Carter _The fundamental, yet often unstated premise upon which the Special Theory of Relativity rests is the idea that the photon has no mass. _This is a purely metaphysical assumption that is not confirmed by any experiment. _All measurements of mass, energy and photons show the photon to have an energy of E=MC2 and a mass of M=Sqrt(E/C2). _The apparent conflict between these two equations is resolved by simply ignoring the second and declaring that photons, unlike any other bodies, are "pure" energy and have no mass. _This faulty logic then leads to the conclusions that photons are created from the destruction of mass and that the energy used to accelerate a body increases its mass. _However, a more rigorous interpretation of photon dynamics shows that mass is a universal constant and is never converted into photons and is never increased by the acceleration of bodies. *6*Relativistic Interpretation (with NonZero Photon Mass) of the Small Ether Drift Velocity Detected by Michelson, Morley and Miller (1997) by Dr Jean Pierre Vigier _A detailed analysis of the MichelsonMorley ether drift experiment (from 1887 to 1926) contradicts the classical law of addition of velocities. _The small ether drifts first observed by Michelson are not compatible with Newtonian Mechanics. _This result paved the way for the first form of the Theory of Relativity in which light velocity is always equal to c in all directions, and no such drift is possible. _It is shown in this letter that the introduction of a small photon mass mg ~ 1065 gr. by Einstein, Schroedinger, de Broglie et al implies a small anisotropy in the velocity of light (at each frequency) and the reintroduction of an observable absolute inertial frame. _Consequently, in conjunction with Dirac's chaotic covariant ether distribution, this provides a relativistic interpretation of Michelson's 8.1 km/s absolute earth ether drift observation, later confirmed by Miller in 1933. _More recent results are briefly discussed. *5*Electromechanical Physical Model of the Photon (1988) by Dr Daniel H Deutsch _A rotating dipole model of the photon is proposed with massless point charges (2 c)1/2− and (2 c)1/2+ (16.55e− and 16.55e+, respectively), which are / distance apart. _This model quantitatively accounts for the linear momentum, angular momentum, translational energy, rotational energy, total energy, and wavelength of the photon inside of Newtonian Maxwellian mechanics and provides a physical mechanism for electromagnetic mass. _In this model the photon has both particle and wave characteristics. *5*The Doppler Effect at Photon Emission (2003) by Prof Philipp M Kanarev _It is shown that the Doppler Effect calculation at photon emission is possible only with the help of classical mathematical models. *5*The "multiple Photon", an alternative to the single particle Photon (2012) by Jean de Climont _Particle and wave natures of the photon allow for explaining quite simply almost all phenomena related to electromagnetic waves. _The situation was changed with quantum entanglement. _However, a very recent experience seems to show a tendency to return to the model of the pilot wave of BoehmBroglie. _The purpose of this note is to show that the replacement of the particle photon by a set of particles could make everything simpler. _Unlike a single particle, a set of homokinetic particles can be divided. *5*A Model of the Photon (2002) by Wladimir Guglinski _When Einstein introduced the concept of a photon in the beginning of the 20th Century, he also introduced a new theoretical problem: the concept of a photon (a quantum of light) is not compatible with Maxwell's Equations. _Over several years Einstein tried, in vain, to find a solution to conciliate the concept of a photon with Maxwell's Equations. _The concept of the corpuscular photon can be conciliated with Maxwell's Equations through the adoption of the helical trajectory of the elementary particles. _The helical trajectory is a new alternative for the explanation of the duality of the waveparticle, proposed by T S Natarajan in a paper published by Physics Essay. _Herein a model of a photon is proposed based on Natarajan's idea. _The possibility of proposing a physical theoretical model of a photon was rejected by Einstein and Dirac in the beginning of the 20th Century because some experiments have shown that the photon has a statistical behavior in some light polarization phenomena. _Their restriction is the most fundamental argument against the viability of a theoretical proposal for a photon model. _Nevertheless, in Paper No 2 (Demystifying the EPR Paradox) it is shown that there is a hidden variable in the structure of the photon, responsible for the statistical behavior. _Therefore, the fact that in the photon there is a hidden variable implies the following: the statistical behavior can be explained through a physical model of the photon, something considered impossible during the 20th Century. _From the elimination of the fundamental objection raised by Einstein and Dirac, we may consider the present new proposal. _A model of a photon must satisfy the following premises: _To be able to yield Maxwell's Equations. _To be compatible with the duality waveparticle of light. _To be able to explain the transverse propagation of light. _To be able to explain the light polarization (as we will see in Paper No 2) _To be able to conciliate the quantum concept of light with Maxwell's Equations _(they can't be reconciled through the present model of the photon, as shown in Paper No 2) *5*Doppler Phenomena Determined by PhotonCosmic Field Interactions (2012) by Viraj Fernando _This paper concerns a new field of study ? Energy Mechanics. _It is discerned that all systems are open and there is an ingress and egress of energy from particles and photons into the cosmic governing field in all interactions. _And all phenomena are determined by algorithms which regulate the ingress and egress of energy. _Doppler shifts, aberration, and Fresnel's formula for motion of light are all explained as photon cosmic field interactions determined by algorithms. *5*Gaussian Surface of a Photon (2009) by Francis Viren Fernandes _Elementary charge, q is 186ether bounded by a photon surface. _The photon surface has a mass which conserves its intrinsic elementary charge, q by obeying the charge squared formula. _The electric field, E is calculated and related to the photon surface charge density. _The charge density is then related to the surface area of the photon, proton and 186ether. *4*Electron Spin and the Emission of Photons (2007) by Mitch Emery _The awkward spin of an electron escapes rational understanding. _But by principles from my previous study, the spin is portrayed as a dual spin, with one spin perpendicular to the other. _A dual spin as such serves to explain the emission of photons, along with their wavelike pattern, and the speed limit c. _Planck's radiation law and the photoelectric effect are also discussed. *4*PhotonLike Solutions of Maxwell\'s Equations (2009) by John E Carroll, Joseph Beals IV, Ruth Thompson _Novel photonlike solutions of Maxwell's equations in freespace are constructed where transverse fields, propagating at frequency ? with phase (group) velocities vp (vg), possess local helical rotations at a frequency ? over the whole crosssection. _These are referred to as distributed spin rotations. _The frequencies ? and ? are independent with the helical modulation propagating at vg, unlike single frequency classical solutions with helical phase fronts. _These novel solutions are accessible only with vector formalisms although the axial fields satisfy the standard scalar waveequation. _The theory is outlined using the compact Riemann Silberstein formulation of Maxwell's equations with a field vector F = E + icB. _Lightcone coordinates facilitate a manifestly Lorentz invariant theory. _Appropriately chosen distributed spin rotations provide a wide variety of Lorentz invariant packets that envelope the classical fields and contain energy that is proportional to the total helical rotation over the length of the packet. _The requirement that both transverse and axial fields are enveloped together leads to quantisation of the rotational energy in integer units, N. _Solutions with different N are orthogonal. _Operators can be formed, which increase (decrease) the rate of helical rotation and hence increase (decrease) the energy, and behave as promotion and demotion operators of standard quantum theory supporting a view that these new solutions form a photonanalogue. _The paper concludes with a review of singlephoton experiments that are in keeping with this model. _Appendices contain detailed mathematics, speculative material and theorise on quantumlike features of the photonanalogue with regard to interference, polarisation and entanglement. *3*PhotonGraviton Recycling as Cause of Gravitation (2007) by Matthew R Edwards _Previously, the author proposed that graviton energy and photon energy are everywhere being interconverted at fractional rates proportional to the Hubble constant H0. _Evidence for the postulated graviton decay was suggested to lie in observable planetary heating and expansion. _The greatest quantity of gravitational potential energy associated with a mass resides in its interactions with the most distant matter of the visible universe. _Assuming that this graviton energy is also decaying to photons, then long wavelength electromagnetic radiation is being generated almost uniformly at every point in space. _A universe in equilibrium requires that this radiation is reconverted to gravitons at the same relative rate, closing the energy cycle. _Supposing that photons are reconverted to gravitons through absorption by matter, a simple mechanism for universal gravitation can be developed. _In a mechanism analogous to Le Sage's and Brush's theories of gravity, bodies mutually screen each other from a portion of the radio photon background and consequently are pushed towards each other. _It is shown that Newton's law is reproduced and some possible connections to the General Theory of Relativity are discussed. _Lastly, it is suggested that the luminosities of neutron stars, white dwarfs and black holes may be primarily due to graviton decay therein. *3*Classical Interpretation of EPR Bell Test Photon Correlation Experiments (2006) by Dr Thomas Smid _It is shown that the result of Bell test photon correlation experiments can be explained in a purely semiclassical way if the detection process for the light signals is properly being modeled as a statistical stepwise photoionization process. _See my web page Classical Interpretation of EPR Bell Test Photon Correlation Experiments for more. *3*LaboratoryScale Test of de Broglie's TiredPhoton Model (1997) by Prof Jos Ramalho Croca _An experiment, feasible on a laboratory scale, to test the de Broglie tiredphoton model is presented. _This quantum model states that the photon, just like any quantum particle, is a real physical entity with inner complex structure. _While traveling from a distant star the photon interacts with the medium, losing energy. _The test of this aging possibility for the photon has deep implications both for the very foundations of quantum mechanics and for the model of the BigBang for the universe. _The model allows a non ad hoc explanation for the cosmological redshift without Doppler effect. *3*Photon Model (2003) by Prof Philipp M Kanarev _An electromagnetic model for the photon is found from the mathematical relations that describe its behavior within the framework of an axiom of spacemattertime unity and the available experimental results. *3*Photon: Reality or Fiction (2009) by Dr Milos Abadzic _It is indicative that we now, after more than a hundred years, ask the question what is the nature of light, or the photons. _At the same time, many principles of modern physics [are] based on this concept and its characteristics. _Is it meant that with this kind of symposium's title implicitly advocating change the nature of electromagnetic waves (EMW) and photons as accepted their carrier? _In this matter we must be aware that changes their characteristics mean a review and certainly correction of many laws and postures that ruled within the physics. _In my opinion, it is extremely time to do it but I doubt that the majority of scientific community is ready for such a step. _This my attitude about the need for changes based on the NMN model of nature, that I have developed (Natural Model of Nature), and which in the other light present nature of EMW. _In this matter, I could not avoid two issues that are closely related to this nature: the speed and quantum of light. *3*Resonance Formula of the Hydrogen Spectrum against Light Quanta: Photons (2012) by Dimiter G Stoinov, Dilian D Stoynov _Is solved the problem of hydrogen. _The starting point is a planetary model of the atom and the concept that electrons move in classical elliptical orbits, and that all parameters of its motion (coordinates, momentum, energy, speed, etc.) appear as continuous functions of time. _Discrete radiation spectrum of the atom is explained by the resonance condition between the speed with which electrons move in an orbit and the rate of precession. _Special attention is paid to the question why Rydberg constant in angular speed is exactly twice less than Borov's speed. _Considered again the question of socalled resonance formula. _Reached the conclusion that the resonance formula explains at the same time, atomic and molecular spectra. _It is note that the physic does not need energy quanta  photons. _It is note also that the resonance formula can be a solid foothold in the fight against relativism. *3*Secondary Field Theory and Photons (2008) by Richard Oldani _The field diagram for an electromagnetic wave shows that electric and magnetic field vectors violate Gauss laws. _This is corrected and wave motion is explained by introducing a dipolefield geometry for the photon. _The dual waveparticle nature of photons is also accounted for by means of classical fields and vector addition. *3*The Gravity of Photons and the Necessary Rectification of Einstein Equation (2006) by Dr Chung Y Lo _It is pointed out that Special Relativity together with the principle of causality implies that the gravity of an electromagnetic wave is an accompanying gravitational wave propagating with the same speed. _Since a gravitational wave carries energy/momentum, this accompanying wave would make the energystress tensor of the light to be different from the electromagnetic energystress tensor, and thus can produce a geodesic equation for the photons. _Moreover, it is found that the appropriate Einstein equation must additionally have the photonic energystress tensor with the antigravity coupling in the source term. _This would correct that, in disagreement with the calculations for the bending of light, existing solutions of gravity for an electromagnetic wave, is unbounded. _This rectification is confirmed by calculating the gravity of electromagnetic planewaves. _The gravity of an electromagnetic wave is indeed an accompanying gravitational wave. _Moreover, these calculations show the first time that Special Relativity and General Relativity are compatible because the physical meaning of coordinates has been clarified. _The success of this rectification makes General Relativity standing out further among theories of gravity. *3*The Photon (1996) by Dr Robert L Carroll _This article is written to show that the photon is a wave motion limited to one wavelength in the longitudinal direction and a transverse circumference of one wavelength. _This gives it the form of a cylinder with no indication of any spread with distance of travel. _Thus it has the characteristics of both wave and particle. _The "eitheror" controversy of wave or particle is avoided in this way. _There is no indication that a medium is required for its propagation. *3*What Experiments on Diffraction of Photons Say (2012) by Mitch Emery _The foundation of quantum theory rests on the notion that a particle is a localized wavepacket formed from the superposition of plane waves of many different frequencies, all grouped around some central frequency. _Several experiments conducted by Panarella confirm that the wave nature of light appears with a collection of photons, but dispute it for single photons. _Experiments show that photons cannot produce a diffraction pattern when they are detected one at a time or as isolated entities; photons need to be clumped together in order to create a diffraction pattern. _A separate laser diffraction experiment conducted by a Brazilian team shows that the course of light rays changes with the motion of the Earth, and their results differ in amount of 21% from the prediction of special relativity theory. _And so in addition to the original findings of Panarella's experiments, this new finding is further evidence that something is wrong with contemporary physics. _The purpose of this note is to bring conflicting observations of light into agreement with one common principle. *2*Internal Structures of Electrons and Photons and some Consequences in Relativistic Physics (1997) by Prof Werner A Hofer _The theoretical foundations of quantum mechanics and de BroglieBohm mechanics are analyzed and it is shown that both theories employ a formal approach to microphysics. _By using a realistic approach it can be established that the internal structure of particles comply with a waveequation. _Including external potentials yields the Schrodinger equation, which, in this context, is arbitrary due to internal energy components. _The uncertainty relations are an expression of this, fundamental, arbitrariness. _Electrons and photons can be described by an identical formalism, providing formulations equivalent to the Maxwell equations. _Electrostatic interactions justify the initial assumption of electronwave stability: the stability of electron waves can be referred to vanishing intrinsic fields of interaction. _Aspect's experimental proof of nonlocally is rejected, because these measurements imply a violation of the uncertainty relations. _The theory finally points out some fundamental difficulties for a fully covariant formulation of quantum electrodynamics, which seem to be related to the existing infinity problems in this field. *2*Modelling the Photon and Analyzing Its Electromagnetic and Physical Nature (2002) by Prof Philipp M Kanarev _This paper discusses and exposes the nature of the photon and its electromagnetic fields, as well as the mass of the moving photon. _Formulas are derived that elucidate these findings and help to characterize the photon and its center of mass. *2*Remarks on PhotonHadron Interactions (2003) by E Comay _Theoretical aspects of VMD and related approaches to real photonhadron interaction are discussed. _The work relies on special relativity, properties of linearly polarized photons, angular momentum conservation and relevant experiments. _It is explained why VMD and similar approaches should not be regarded as part of a theory but, at most, as phenomenological models. _A further experiment pertaining to this issue is suggested. *2*The Cosmological Red Shift as a Gravitational Interaction of Photons with Masses in Space (2006) by Charles E Weber _The dependence of the frequency shift of photons on the cosine of the angle made with a gravitational field is an approximation because of the fact that the photon's trajectory changes such as to bring the photon closer to the mass as it passes. _Therefore it dives up out of a slightly deeper well than it dived down into upon passing a mass. _Therefore the red shift leaving will be slightly greater than the blue shift approaching. _It follows that photons should have a slight residual red shift upon passing those masses in space that are either stationary, moving parallel to, or moving toward the trajectory. _This shift is proposed as the main cause of the cosmological red shift since masses moving away from the trajectory should be a minority. *2*The Myth of the Down Converted Photon (2008) by Trevor W Marshall _Parametric down conversion (PDC) is widely interpreted in terms of photons, but, even among supporters of this interpretation, many properties of the photon pairs have been described as "mindboggling" and even "absurd". _In this article we argue that a classical description of the light field, taking account of its vacuum fluctuations, leads us to a consistent and rational description of all PDC phenomena. _"Nonlocality" in quantum optics is simply an artifact of the Photon Concept. _We also predict a new phenomenon, namely the appearance of a second, or satellite PDC rainbow. _(This article will appear in the Proceedings of the Second Vigier Conference held in York University, Canada in August 1997. _A somewhat more formal version has been submitted to Phys. Rev. Letters, and may be found at http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/quantph/9711029.) *2*The Photon (1989) by D E McLennan _It is proposed here that the photon is a dipole comprised of two fundamental charges separated by the distance of alphalambda/pi, rotating in a plane transverse to its direction of travel. _The Maxwell waves traditionally used to describe electromagnetic radiation must be in equilibrium with the dipole photon. _Thus they are circularly polarized. _It is shown here that the photon travels at a speed u < c, and the connection between the two speeds is represented by the fine structure constant. _After discussion of the conditions that a wave solution must satisfy, we find emerging the beginnings of a theory of charge. *2*The Photon and Its Aether (2002) by Joseph F Cuny _Faraday's concept of force lines is used to find the elusive aether of the late 1800's. _Force lines were then used to develop the structure of the photon and its means of propagation. _Finally a few cases of photon activity are described. _It is seen that the photon travels as a 'wave' and is detected as a particle. _It is also seen that its speed is dependent on the state of local matter and is not the absolute limitation postulated by Einstein. *2*The Photon with a Classical Field (1980) by Richard Oldani _A model of the photon is proposed which would account for differences between the semiclassical and quantum theories of electromagnetic radiation. _The evidence opposing this model is shown to be inconclusive. _Guidelines for a more precise experimental test are outlined. *2*Work Done on Photons During Refraction: Improved Symmetry From a More Consistent Expression for Photon Energy (1988) by Allen D Allen _By direct substitution from E = mc2 and lambda = h(mv)−1, energy becomes E = hc2(lambdav)−1. _This reduces to Planck's equation if, and only if, v = c. _It follows from Snell's law that a photon undergoing refraction will gain energy sigmaE = hc2[(lambdav)−1 − (lambda0C)−1], where lambda0 is its wavelength in vacuo. _This very small energy gain arises from work done on the photon's mass by the refracting medium in decelerating the photon from c to v. _The medium therefore looses internal energy while the photon is passing through, regaining it when the photon leaves to resume speed c. _Photon momentum is a linear, monotoneincreasing function of speed, p = hc(lambda0v)−1. _The reason photons do not have rest mass is because they cannot rest in space (v = 0) for the same reason massive particles cannot rest in time (v = c): In either case the energy would be infinite. _EPRtype paradoxes can be resolved by replacing the notion of selfinterference with recognition of the fact that lambdax is the extent of the xaxis that is instantaneously occupied by a particle. *1*How do Neutral Photons Carry the Sign & Value of Charge? (2002) by Dr Vyacheslav N Streltsov _Virtual field quanta carry an interaction between particles. _The opinion is expressed that the difference between the fields of positive and negative charges, can be conditioned by the helical differences of the corresponding virtual photons. _But some difficulties arise when one tries to explain the mechanism by which the very charge value is carried. *1*The Structure of a Photon (2005) by J?nos Roh _A model proposed for light, assuming photons are neither an elementary particle nor a wave. _A photon is built up of four fundamental particles: two of different gravity particles, A and B, and two kinds of electric charge particles, positive and negative. _The yinyang symbol seems to be quite deep meaning, and strange though it may appear a key to understanding the function of the material world. **A Field Based Model of the Photon; Lorentz Covariant Quantization (2005) by Richard Oldani **A Relativistic WaveParticle Based on Maxwell?s Equations: A Model for a Classical Photon (2006) by John E Carroll **Experiments with Entangled TwoPhoton States From TypeH Parametric Down Conversion: Evidence for Wave Particle Duality (1994) by Prof Carroll O Alley, **Light as Dynamic Maxwellian Photons: Interference in Terms of Trajectories (2010) by Antonis Agathangelidis, Anastasios Th Triantafillides **Lightwaves, Not Photons (2011) by Robert L Henderson **Photon as a Classical Wave Packet from Classically Stabilized Electron Orbits (2007) by Jan Olof Jonson **Photons and Neutrinos as Electromagnetic Solitons (1989) by Dr Geoffrey Hunter, Robert LP Wadlinger **Physics EA: Photoelectric Effect No Empirical Confirmation for the Existence of a Photon That Carries Energy Packet E = hf (2008) by Johann Marinsek **Physics G: Photons Would Not Spin (2008) by Johann Marinsek **Quantum Mechanical Disclosure of the Classical Adiabatic Constancy of PV for an Ideal Gas, and for a Photon Gas (2008) by Prof Dr Tolga Yarman **SubQuantum Physics 10: The NWave Photon Explains Planck\'s Constant (2008) by Alan McCone Jr **SubQuantum Physics 11: The NWave Photon, Particles, Transversality, & Polarization (2009) by Alan McCone Jr **SubQuantum Physics 7: The SpinZero Photon Hypothesis (2004) by Alan McCone Jr **SubQuantum Physics 8: Photons Have Inertial Properties of Weak Shock NWaves (2005) by Alan McCone Jr **SubQuantum Physics 9: The NWave Photon is Compatible with Special Relativity (2007) by Alan McCone Jr **The Gravitational Potential for a Moving Observer, Mercury\'s Perihelion, Photon Deflection and Time Delay of a Solar Grazing Photon (2012) by Dr Curtis E Renshaw **The Myth of the Photon (1997) by Prof Emilio C Santos, Trevor W Marshall **The Revenge of Old Classical Physics: No Space for Photons or Relativity (2009) by Alvaro Quinteros Valenzuela **Weightlessness of Photons: A quantum effect (2004) by Dr Ari Brynjolfsson
