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3c. CC's Solar Model Proofs
© Lloyd

From CC's paper: "Preview" http://www.qdl.scs-inc.us/?top=8469
This is Charles' recent summary of the reasoning for his model.
[Proof That the Sun's Distinct Limb Is Not Due to Gravity]
The standard model of the Sun fails to explain even the simplest of solar observations.
- at its visible surface, the Sun is 75% hydrogen and 25% helium, with just traces of heavier elements.
- Figure 1 shows the surface of the Sun on the limb, and in the primary wavelength emitted by hydrogen.
- Notice that the edge of the photosphere is very distinct, topped by the tenuous plasma in the chromosphere and transition region.1
- Above that, the solar atmosphere is transparent.
- The full transition, from opacity to transparency, occurs in only 7 Mm [7,000 km].
- (Figure 1. The solar limb seen in H-α (6563 Å), 2007-05-27, courtesy Fred Bruenjes.)
- Further evidence of a distinct surface are the s-waves sometimes caused by solar flares.
- S-waves only occur at the boundary between layers with dramatically different densities.2:73 (See Figure 2.)
- (Figure 2. Waves propagating after a solar flare, 1996-07-09, courtesy SOHO.)
- (The images show an area 200 Mm [200,000 km] across.)

- Yet in the standard model, a distinct surface just isn't possible.
- If the organizing principle is gravity, balanced only by hydrostatic pressure, the density gradient should be set deterministically by the ideal gas laws. (See Figure 3.)
- (Figure 3. The density gradient of the Sun in the Dalsgaard model, based on the ideal gas laws, with gravity supplying the pressure.)
- (The X axis shows the decimal of the solar radius starting from the center, and above is the percentage of the solar volume, starting from the surface.)
- (The Y axis shows g/cm3.)

- The model density at 1.0 R is 2×10^−4 kg/m^3 (i.e., a good laboratory vacuum), increasing steadily to the density of STP air at a depth of 13.22 Mm.
- In such a gradient, there is no distinct edge.
- Analogously, the Earth's atmosphere traverses the same gradient from the top of the mesosphere (i.e., the dashed red line in (Figure 4) down to sea level.3
- Even when only partially back-lit by the Sun, the [Earth's] mesosphere is transparent.
- In full daylight, even the troposphere is transparent.
- (Figure 4. Earth's atmosphere back-lit at sunrise, courtesy NASA.)
- (The pale blue-green color is from water vapor in the troposphere.)
- (The dark blue is from nitrogen and oxygen in the stratosphere.)
- (The dashed red line shows the top of the transparent mesosphere.)
- (Figure 5. ESO 325-G004)

- Hence the plasma on the limb of the Sun should still be quite transparent at a depth [of] 13.22 Mm, and the opacity should increase steadily with depth, without producing a distinct edge.
- With an internal light source, the Sun should look like headlights in the fog, with the luminosity gradually tapering off to nothing at some distance from the center
- (similar to the luminosity from elliptical galaxies (for different reasons), as in (Figure 5.))
- Since the ideal gas laws leave no room for reinterpretation, the only possible conclusion is that forces other than just gravity and hydrostatic pressure are responsible for the sharp increase in density going from the chromosphere to the photosphere.
- At the macroscopic level, there are two candidates: the electric force, and the magnetic force.
[Proof That the Sun's Distinct Limb Is Not Due to Magnetism]
- We can rule out the magnetic force by several lines of reasoning.
- First, the Sun's magnetic field averages 1 Gauss, which is merely twice the strength of the Earth's average field, and there is no distinct density drop-off in the Earth's atmosphere.
- Second, hydrogen plasma doesn't have much of a magnetic dipole, so it wouldn't respond much, even to a strong field.
- Third, if it did, the surface of the Sun would vary [in height] with the strength and polarity of the magnetic field, which it does not.
- That leaves only the electric force.
[Proof That the Sun's Distinct Limb Is Not Due to Just One Layer of Surface Electric Charge]
- Since it's the only candidate, its presence need not be proved any other way.
- We can then ask what configuration of the electric force would produce such a distinct edge.
- We know that for the electric force to have that much influence, the top layer has to be charged.
- We can also deduce with confidence that there has to be a strong field between it and an underlying layer.
- If the Sun only had one charge (positive or negative), it would not have a distinct edge on the limb.
- The Coulomb force would simply add to the hydrostatic pressure, somewhat more vigorously, and the density would thin out over a much greater distance.

[Proof That the Sun's Distinct Limb Is Due to Compressive Ionization in a Deeper Layer]
- So there have to be at least two different charges in the Sun, and the charge of the visible surface has to be opposite from the charge of the layer below it.
- The electric force then pulls the top layer downward, compacting it far beyond the expectations of the ideal gas laws.
- Charged double-layers wouldn't seem possible, since hydrogen plasma at 6,000 K is an excellent conductor.
- There are only two forces that can maintain a charge separation in the absence of any resistance whatsoever: the magnetic force, and compressive ionization.
- We already ruled out the magnetic force, so compressive ionization is the only candidate.
- At extreme pressures (easily achieved inside the Sun), atoms are forced closer together than their electron shells allow, resulting in the expulsion of the electrons.4
- The free electrons congregate at a higher altitude, where the reduced density provides enough space between atoms to accommodate them.
- The negative layer so produced might go on to induce a positive charge in the layer above it, which will likewise be a current-free double-layer, still in the absence of any resistance whatsoever.
- The positive double-layer will be attracted to the negative layer, but repelled by the positive layer below that (i.e., the one created by compressive ionization), and all three will be stable in a PNP configuration.
- Such layers created simply by induction can continue ad infinitum, though in spherical layers, the charge density relaxes [decreases?] with each inversion.
- At some point away from the primary charge separation, the next induced double-layer will not be bound firmly enough to stay organized.
- So we have deduced with confidence the following facts.
-· The electric force is responsible for the extreme density of the photosphere compared to the chromosphere.
-· The photosphere is electrically charged.
-· There is at least one other layer below it, with the opposite charge, supplying the force necessary to compress the photosphere beyond the expectations of the ideal gas laws.
-· The primary charge separation is caused by compressive ionization, setting up the first two charged double-layers.
- Additional layers might also be caused by induction.
[Proof That the Sun's Distinct Limb Is Not Due to an Anode Configuration, But to a Cathode One]
- We can also deduce the charge of the photosphere, and the relative strength of its charge compared to the underlying layer.
- There are six possible configurations.
- There are two possible stacking orders of charges (positive over negative, or negative over positive).
- Then there are three variations for the relative strengths of the charges (top layer is stronger, underlying layer is stronger, or the charges are perfectly matched).
- We can dismiss the possibility that the top layer has more charge, since the excess charge would simply drift away.
- We can also dismiss the possibility that the charges are evenly matched.
- In charged double-layers, the electric field between the layers is greatest at the boundary between them.
- Moving away from the boundary, the field density diminishes, because of the increased distance from the opposite charge, and because of repulsion from like charges in the same layer.
- Analogously, in a heavy element, the outer electrons are loosely bound, because of distance from the nucleus, and because of repulsion from electrons in inner shells.
- The same is true of plasma double-layers.
- The significance is that with equally matched charges in the solar double-layers, the density of the top layer would still relax gradually to nothing at some distance away [the density would decrease gradually, instead of abruptly].
- So the distinct limb proves that the underlying charge [layer] has to be more powerful [than the top layer], and the top layer has only its densest component [?].
- This leaves only two possible configurations, depending on the stacking order (positive over negative, or negative over positive).
- First we'll consider that the underlying layer is positive.
- If so, it would easily strip all of the excess electrons from the overlying [i.e. top] layer, as they would all be unbound at 6,000 K.
- Neutral atoms left behind would form a gravitational gradient, tapering off to nothing at infinity.
- So the underlying layer cannot be positive.
- The only remaining possibility is that the underlying layer is negative.
- As such, it will attract positive ions, and ionize neutral atoms to pull in the positive charges that it wants.
- Excess electrons above such a layer will not shield it from our view, because free electrons are transparent.
- Hence the distinct limb reveals the extent of a positive double-layer being held down tightly to a far stronger negative layer.
- (Figure 6. Convective zone layers.)
- (Red = negative; green = positive.)
- (Dimensions are in Mm.)

- Figure 6 depicts this charge configuration, with a positive charge on top, a negative layer below that, and another positive layer below that.
[How the PNP Layers Formed]
- If we look back at Figure 3, we see that at ~0.83 R the density has achieved that of liquid hydrogen due to the gravitational force.
- Additional pressure will then ionize the hydrogen [by compressive ionization], creating a layer of positive charge.
- For this reason, the top of the primary positive layer is set there (i.e., 125 Mm below the surface).
- Due to the helioseismic echo at the tachocline, the bottom of that layer is set 84 Mm deeper.
- All of the electrons expelled from the primary positive layer will congregate above, creating a negative layer.
- The positive layer at the top [called the photosphere] can only be the result of induction.
- Its depth is set at 20 Mm due to the presence of a slight helioseismic echo there.
- Hence by fully processing a few simple facts, we gain a lot of information about the structure of the Sun, at least near the surface.
- The remainder of this work applies this general method, of going back to the most salient observations of the Sun, and thoroughly considering the implications.
- The result is a fully physical model that performs respectably at a high specificity.
References
1. Robitaille, P., 2011: On the Presence of a Distinct Solar Surface: A Reply to Hervé Faye.
- Progress in Physics, 3: 75-78
2. Robitaille, P., 2007: A High Temperature Liquid Plasma Model of the Sun. Progress in Physics, 1: 70-81
3. Picone, J. M.; E. Hedin, A.; Drob, D. P.; Aikin, A. C., 2002: NRLMSISE-00 empirical model of the atmosphere: Statistical comparisons and scientific issues. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107 (A12): 1468
4. Saumon, D.; Chabrier, G., 1992: Fluid hydrogen at high density: Pressure ionization. Physical Review A, 46 (4): 2084-2100

'13-05-06, 22:13
 
Lloyd
St. Louis area

From CC's paper: "Preview" http://www.qdl.scs-inc.us/?top=8469
This is Charles' recent summary of the reasoning for his model.


[Proof That the Sun's Distinct Limb Is Not Due to Gravity]

The standard model of the Sun fails to explain even the simplest of solar observations.

At its visible surface, the Sun is 75% hydrogen and 25% helium, with just traces of heavier elements.

Figure 1 [at http://www.qdl.scs-inc.us/?top=8469] shows the surface of the Sun on the limb, and in the primary wavelength emitted by hydrogen.

Notice that the edge of the photosphere is very distinct, topped by the tenuous plasma in the chromosphere and transition region.

Above that, the solar atmosphere is transparent.

The full transition, from opacity to transparency, occurs in only 7 Mm [7,000 km of the photosphere].

(Figure 1. The solar limb seen in H-α (6563 Å), 2007-05-27, courtesy Fred Bruenjes.)

Further evidence of a distinct surface are the s-waves sometimes caused by solar flares.

S-waves only occur at the boundary between layers with dramatically different densities.2:73 (See Figure 2.)

(Figure 2. Waves propagating after a solar flare, 1996-07-09, courtesy SOHO.)
(The images show an area 200 Mm [200,000 km] across.)

Yet in the standard model, a distinct surface just isn't possible.

If the organizing principle is gravity, balanced only by hydrostatic pressure, the density gradient should be set deterministically by the ideal gas laws. (See Figure 3.)


(Figure 3. The density gradient of the Sun in the Dalsgaard model, based on the ideal gas laws, with gravity supplying the pressure.)
(The X axis shows the decimal of the solar radius starting from the center, and above is the percentage of the solar volume, starting from the surface.)
(The Y axis shows g/cm3.)


The model density at 1.0 R is 2×10^−4 kg/m^3 (i.e., a good laboratory vacuum), increasing steadily to the density of STP air at a depth of 13.22 Mm.

In such a gradient, there is no distinct edge.

Analogously, the Earth's atmosphere traverses the same gradient from the top of the mesosphere (i.e., the dashed red line in (Figure 4) down to sea level.3

Even when only partially back-lit by the Sun, the [Earth's] mesosphere is transparent.

In full daylight, even the troposphere is transparent.

(Figure 4. Earth's atmosphere back-lit at sunrise, courtesy NASA.)
(The pale blue-green color is from water vapor in the troposphere.)
(The dark blue is from nitrogen and oxygen in the stratosphere.)
(The dashed red line shows the top of the transparent mesosphere.)
(Figure 5. ESO 325-G004)

Hence the plasma on the limb of the Sun should still be quite transparent at a depth [of] 13.22 Mm, and the opacity should increase steadily with depth, without producing a distinct edge.

With an internal light source, the Sun should look like headlights in the fog, with the luminosity gradually tapering off to nothing at some distance from the center (similar to the luminosity from elliptical galaxies (for different reasons), as in (Figure 5.))

Since the ideal gas laws leave no room for reinterpretation, the only possible conclusion is that forces other than just gravity and hydrostatic pressure are responsible for the sharp increase in density going from the chromosphere to the photosphere.

At the macroscopic level, there are two candidates: the electric force, and the magnetic force.

   

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