Divide Article into Sections etc?
© Lloyd

Charles, I broke your article down into statements, then I looked for problems and made suggestions for dividing up the article into sections with section titles and I asked questions for each section, which I'll highlight in bold.

Problem Grammar
Here I'm using this sign ** to mean problem grammar, which I find in the following sentences.
... As it moves outward, it maintains its velocity, while the revolution period** relaxes with distance from the center, resulting in an outward spiral.
... But the plasma groups will also be** repel each other, hence they would prefer that the three negative bodies be in a line, such that the two plasma groups are screened from each others'** positive charges**. [The word "each other" here is singular, so the possessive should be "each other's" and then "charges" would be "charge".]
... Now if we are to apply centrifugal force, which will attempt to stretch of** the cluster, but counter it with the electric force that gives the cluster tensile strength, we can expect the cluster to elongate into a filament.

1.***[First section possible title:] Abstract: Galactic Evolution
***Questions for this section:
= Since "like-likes-like" seems confusing by suggesting that negatives attract each other and positives attract each other, could you change the term to something like the "like-triangle", like a love-triangle without jealousy? X1 attracts Y1 to one side and Y2 to the other, making Y1 and Y2 come close together, whereas they otherwise repel each other. Y1 and Y2 can also have triangles with X1 and X2 and with X1 and X3 etc.*7175
= Have you clarified how & why nebulae explode & implode?
= And have you clarified how & why star clusters do so?
= Should you link to a page that explains the im/explosion cycle?
= What are maximum sizes of galaxies?
= Why is that the maximum?
= How do galaxies cluster?
= Why are there voids between galaxy clusters?
= Is the universe rotating?
= Is this your summary of galactic evolution: pregalactic medium; peculiars; sphericals; ellipsoids; lenticulars; spirals; rings?

__Figure 1. - NGC 1427A
- So we have an electric force in a "like-likes-like" configuration causing the condensation of dusty plasmas into asteroids, planets, & stars.
- A big enough cluster of stars makes a galaxy.
- But with just these factors taken into account, we have no reason to expect the star clusters to show any larger organizational structure.
- We can easily understand the so-called peculiar galaxies, such as in __Figure 1, which are random assemblies of stars in no particular form.
- But there are three other major galactic types that are much more organized: the ellipticals, the lenticulars, and the spirals.
- What is the organizing principle responsible for those forms?
- The first thing that we observe about organized galaxies is their rounded form, whether it is nearly spherical, or a perfectly flat disc.
- Assuming that all of these galaxies were once peculiars, the rounding suggests that one or more times in their past, they have imploded and exploded.
- The reason is that explosions accelerate matter outward in a radial pattern, hence the rounded form.
- It might take several cycles to completely change a peculiar shape into a perfect sphere, but this will happen eventually.
- So we will suspect that organized galaxies are in implosion/explosion cycles.

2.***[2nd section possible title:] From Pregalactic to Ellipsoids
***Questions for this section:
= Should you clarify in parentheses for novices that radial means inward or outward in all directions, while rotational means rotating or spinning?
= Should you clarify that aspect ratio means how many times longer the widest diameter is than the narrowest diameter, if that's right?
= Should you have a link to a page having your explanation of stellar evolution and aging?
= Since you've said that one can't readily tell if a planet is building up into a star, or if a star is reducing to a planet, are you confident about determining the ages of stars or planets?
= Can the density of an object's environment, or an approaching environment, determine whether the object is or will be growing or shrinking?
= Can past object environment density be determined and, if so, can that history determine the object's age?
= Is there any reason to deny that quasar and galaxy redshifts are due to ionization and not to a Doppler shift, since quasars are mostly connected to nearby galaxies by bridges of matter and at least one quasar is visible directly in front of a nearby galaxy, and quasars appear to contain very ionized elements?
= Should you provide more info comparing jets from the various kinds of galaxy AGNs and link to a page that explains galactic jets and why they vary?
= Should you state which section will address the AGN energy source?

__Figure 2. - ESO 325-G004
- Roughly 4% of all galaxies are classified as ellipticals (as in __Figure 2).
- These are actually ellipsoids (3D ellipses), and are believed to get their shape from two galaxies merging.
- How exactly this happens has not been identified.
- Ellipticals do not have bimodal cores, and the density drops off smoothly from the center, producing an indistinct boundary.
- The motion of stars within the galaxy appears to be more radial than rotational, though the rotational component appears to vary with the aspect ratio (i.e., major axis over minor axis).
- Hence nearly spherical galaxies have no detectable average rotation, and the more elliptical the galaxy, the more consistently all of the stars are rotating in the same direction.
- The stars in elliptical galaxies are much older than in spiral galaxies, implying that the ellipsoid is a stable configuration.
- Nevertheless, ellipticals (such as NGC 4486 and NGC 383) sometimes shoot out relativistic jets from their active galactic nuclei, and only elliptical galaxies emit bipolar radio source jets.
- When active, these jets clearly reveal powerful energy sources in the galactic nuclei, and this can only be evidence of matter converging on the center.
- (The nature of the energy source will be addressed later.)

3.***[3rd section possible title:] From Ellipsoids to Spirals
***Questions for this section:
= Should there be a table comparing the features of each galaxy type?
= At what stage do whole galaxies stop imploding and exploding?
= Is it at the Spherical stage?
= Can you say in what sections of galaxies the im/explosion cycle is confined  at each stage?

__Figure 3. - NGC 5866
- Roughly 14% of all galaxies are classified as lenticulars, such as in __Figure 3.
- These are similar to ellipticals in many ways. They have elliptical forms.
- The galactic boundaries are indistinct.
- They are comprised mainly of old stars.
- There is very little interstellar plasma.
- The consistency of rotation varies with the aspect ratio.
- For these reasons, many scientists consider lenticulars to be related to ellipticals, just with a higher aspect ratio.
- The main difference is that lenticulars have a distinct disc made of dust.
- This makes them similar to spiral galaxies, except that the dust is not organized into discrete lanes.
- Far and away the most organized galaxies, and the most numerous (at 72% of the total), are the spirals (such as our own Milky Way, and NGC 4565 in __Figure 4).
- These typically have a central, elliptical bulge, which has many properties in common with elliptical galaxies (i.e., old stars on semi-random orbits around the center, and without much interstellar plasma).

4.***[4th section possible title:] In Search of the Galaxy Organizing Force
***Questions for this section:
= Is what you describe as the "early Universe" based on the assumption that redshift correlates to distance and thus to time before the present?
= If so, shouldn't you reconsider the facts I mentioned above that fatally contradict that assumption?

__Figure 4. - NGC 4565
- The distinguishing characteristic of spirals is the dominance of their accretion discs.
- And these are the least-understood of all.
- Except for the central bulge, all of the matter has achieved a consistent rotation around the center, all on the same plane.
- There is some sort of progression, from sphericals, to ellipticals, lenticulars, and then spirals, where the random orbits get coerced into unison.
- In spirals, the progression is nearly complete.
- This is clear evidence of an organizing principle.
- It takes force to alter the motions of stars and planets.
- Anything that can alter the paths of most of the matter in a galaxy is a force of galactic proportions.
- So what is the nature of that force?
- First, we should acknowledge that there is a time scale on which this force is acting.
- A recent study revealed that in the early Universe, there were far more peculiar galaxies, and now, there are far more spirals.1 (See __Figure 5.)
- This means that peculiars are evolving into spirals.
- It seems likely that the peculiars first got organized into ellipticals.
- Then, the mystery force continued to exaggerate the aspect ratios into lenticulars, and then finally into spirals.
- So we should like to know what was going on in the early Universe that could have affected this transformation.

5.***[5th section possible title:] Quasars and Exploding or Colliding Galaxies
***Questions for this section:
= Shouldn't you question the assumption that quasars are so old?
= Shouldn't you question how much energy quasars radiate, since the estimates of their sizes, distances and maybe luminosities are surely wrong?
= Since quasars are observed to be mostly near or connected to nearby galaxies, what is the range of size of quasars compared to their companion galaxies?
= Shouldn't the maximum quasar size be about the same as the companion galaxy?
= Are galaxies the maximum sized objects that seem to have im/explosion cycles?
= You don't suspect that galaxy clusters have such cycles, do you?

__Figure 5. - Distribution of galaxy types, 6 billion years ago versus now.
- Interestingly, very dramatic things were going on in the early Universe.
- Most quasars are older than 3 billion years, meaning that they were active during the period of interest.
- Quasars put out more energy than the average giant galaxy today, and thereby exceed all of the limits in stellar theory.
- Clearly, understanding a quasar does not require rethinking stellar theory, but rather, galactic theory.
- Only if an entire galaxy collapsed (due to gravity and EM forces as described earlier) could such energy be released.
- So we shall consider the possibility that the process that transforms peculiars eventually into spirals involves galactic implosion/explosion cycles.
- All other factors being the same, if gravity combined with the "like-likes-like" principle can get a galaxy to implode, we will then expect for there to be an explosion, and this will send everything outward, one day to get drawn back in by the same forces in the next cycle.
- And we would expect no net rotation in these implosions and explosions.
- On a galactic scale, the random orbits of billions of stars should average out.
- Whatever it happens to be, during the implosion the net angular momentum is distributed throughout all of the matter involved.
- Once the sum has been calculated, this will be the total angular momentum of that galaxy, forever.
- In other words, if we were to generously think that .1% of the net momentum in a peculiar galaxy is rotational as opposed to radial, successive implosions and explosions will never result in more than .1% rotational momentum.
- Yet in spirals we're seeing that the majority of the momentum is rotational, which shouldn't be possible, starting with a random distribution of billions of stars.
- (And here we have to remind ourselves that whatever does happen, can happen. In other words, it's a mistake to discount observations because they don't make sense.)
- In rigorous physics, observations that cannot be explained by the existing framework constitute proof of the presence of one or more other forces, by definition.
- The standard answer is that the angular momentum comes from galactic near-misses.
- As two galaxies pass close to each other, their outer reaches come under the influence of the gravitational and EM fields of the other galaxy, possibly drawing the matter into wispy tails.
- Because it was a near miss, the matter will not move toward the galactic center in a radial pattern, but will rather approach with angular momentum.
- This will induce rotation on a plane that bisects the vectors of both galaxies.

6.***[6th section possible title:] Improbability of Galaxy Collisions
***Questions for this section:
= Are you suggesting that whole spiral galaxies are subject to im/explosion?
= Should you say "newly added matter" "from collision"?

__Figure 6. A near-miss between two spiral galaxies, NGC 3808A and NGC 3808B (Arp 87).
- All by itself, this would not get everything in the entire galaxy rotating on the same plane.
- The chance of two stars colliding anywhere in there is one in several billion.
- So the new spiral should rotate on its own plane forever.
- If the galaxy implodes, the angular momentum will get distributed, and the ejecta from the explosion will all rotate at the same rate.
- Yet we have to remember that the newly added matter is small compared to what was already there.
- We know that the existing galaxy already had a lot of mass — otherwise, it wouldn't have stripped matter from the other galaxy.
- And the existing mass has its existing momentum.
- If there was no rotation, now it has some.
- If it was already rotating in the same direction, now it will rotate faster.
- If it was already rotating in the opposite direction, it will be slowed down or stopped.
- But the net effect should be slight.
- Furthermore, even with angular momentum, we have no reason to expect planar ejecta that would become a disc.
- Rather, we expect spherical ejecta, while nearer the equator the angular momentum will elongate the major axis.
- But that won't create a disc.
- Further still, it's hard to believe that galactic near-misses turned 72% of all galaxies into spirals.
- So we need to take a closer look at what actually goes on in implosion/explosion cycles, which might convert the momentum from radial to angular, all on the same plane.

7.***[7th section possible title:] Powerful Magnetic Fields
***Questions for this section:
= Could you diagram the electric currents and the resulting magnetic fields that produce the elliptical orbits?

__Figure 7. Radial inflow generates clashing magnetic fields.
- Matter being drawn inward achieves relativistic speeds.
- This means that the moving electric charges will generate extremely powerful magnetic fields.
- The significance of that is that in a more-or-less radial inflow, the magnetic fields will clash. (See __Figure 7.)
- With some randomness, the various clumps of matter won't hit the center of gravity — they'll miss to the left or to the right, and then fall into elliptical orbits.
- While this arrangement satisfies the gravitational and inertial forces, the magnetic pressure between the converging particle streams encourages them to merge, such that everything is moving in the same direction.
- The product of all of the forces is a spiraling inflow.
- If the matter could fall into a circular orbit around the center of gravity, the magnetic pressure would be zero, since all of the matter would be traveling in the same direction.
- Yet the gravitational force will be unsatisfied.
- If the matter moves inward in a radial pattern, the force of gravity is satisfied, but there will be magnetic pressure.
- Splitting the difference between the opposing forces yields spiraling accretion.

8.***[8th section possible title:] Final Phase of Maturing Galaxy
***Questions for this section:
= What are the odds that spiral galaxies are subject to im/explosions?
= Wouldn't there be spirals obviously at various stages of im/explosion?
= Like wouldn't there be spirals partially im/exploding, though the galaxy looks predominantly like a normal spiral?
= Could you make a video simulation of the process?

__Figure 8. Magnetic pressure encourages ejecta to fall into a more circular orbit.
- And this is also true for the ejecta from an explosion, if the matter has angular momentum.
- As it moves outward, it maintains its velocity, while the revolution period relaxes with distance from the center, resulting in an outward spiral.
- But in this configuration, neighboring clumps of matter travel at an angle to each other, with magnetic pressure between them.
- This again nudges radial lines of motion into spirals, and spirals into circles. (See __Figure 8.)
- Then we just have to consider what would happen after many repetitions of this cycle.
- As the lines of motion get more and more consolidated in top view, everything is also getting squashed down into a solitary plane of rotation.
- In other words, it becomes a disc.
- It's possible that the most mature galactic form is the ring galaxy, in which all of the original gravitational and EM acceleration has been converted to angular momentum in a rotation around the center.
- In __Figure 9 we can clearly see the old, yellow galactic nucleus, surrounded by the young, blue stars in the ring, which would have condensed from the ejecta in the last explosion.

9.***[9th section possible title:] Electric Force Holds Galaxies Together
***Questions for this section:
= Could anything cause the tensile strength to vary between flexible and rigid?*7240

__Figure 9. PRC D-51 (Hoag's Object), an example of a ring galaxy.
- We can also see a twist in the ring, which makes sense only in EM terms.
- As the galaxy will have an overall magnetic field, charges moving within that field develop a spin due to the Lorentz force.
- Now we should consider what could possibly produce a disc as flat as that in __Figure 4.
- The lay literature frequently likens this to the flattening of pizza dough when twirled in the air.
- This is actually a good metaphor, as the centrifugal force will, indeed, stretch the shape.
- But in a critical analysis, we realize that there also has to be some sort of tensile strength, or it will fly apart.
- If we cut the dough into pieces and try to twirl it, we'll just make a mess of the place.
- So where do we get the tensile strength to hold together a galaxy?
- It isn't gravity, and that's by definition.
- Gravity is a function of mass, and so is the centrifugal force, and these two forces cancel each other out — they don't fight each other, and yield tensile strength as a by-product.
- Additional gravity from CDM doesn't help, at least not if it's conventional matter (albeit surprisingly cold and dark), whose mass would also have its own centrifugal force.
- (Heavier chunks of dough still fly apart if they are twirled at the same speed.)
- We have to find a fundamental physical force that operates at the macroscopic level (ruling out the strong & weak nuclear forces), that isn't a direct function of mass (ruling out gravity), and that can exert an attractive force.
- Well, we've already ruled out all of the fundamental forces except electromagnetism.
- If EM can be attractive, we have our answer.
- And sure enough, in a "like-likes-like" configuration, the electric force is attractive, so this is what provides the tensile strength that allows a galaxy to be twirled into a flat disc without falling apart.

10.***[10th section possible title:] Galactic Filaments
***Questions for this section:
= Under Figure 7 [in what I call section 7] you say "Matter being drawn inward achieves relativistic speeds" but here you say "relativistic speeds ... are not present", so what changed?*7241
= When the relativistic speeds were present in section 7, were there filaments formed electrically?
= Would it help to change the word "inflow" to "motion" or something, where you say "but what causes the filamentary nature of the inflow ..."?

- And lastly, we would like to know what causes the filamentary arms in spiral galaxies.
- When we see the cyclonic pattern as in __Figure 6, we immediately think of a whirlpool that is pulling matter inward.
- But we should distinguish between observation and explanation.
- These are not lines of motion — they're filaments.
- An inward force would create a cyclonic inflow, but what causes the filamentary nature of the inflow (if it is inflow)?
__Figure 10. Positive plasma surrounding negative bodies repels itself.
- Some EM theorists have attributed this to the magnetic pinch effect, wherein the matter is flowing inward at such a rapid rate that enclosing magnetic fields consolidate the matter into filaments.
- But this would take relativistic speeds that are not present.
- Also, the magnetic field lines in spiral arms tend to run parallel through the arms, and are not wrapping around the arms, pinching them into filaments.
- So it's not gravity, and it's not the magnetic force.
- That leaves the electric force.
- If we take another look at the "like-likes-like" principle, we get our answer.
- Given three negatively charged bodies in proximity to each other, there will be two concentrations of positively charged plasma, attracted to the negative charges.
- But the plasma groups will also be repel each other, hence they would prefer that the three negative bodies be in a line, such that the two plasma groups are screened from each others' positive charges. (See __Figure 10.)
- Now if we are to apply centrifugal force, which will attempt to stretch of the cluster, but counter it with the electric force that gives the cluster tensile strength, we can expect the cluster to elongate into a filament.
- Hence the spiral arms are like "skater's whips" where everybody holds hands, and those at the end of the line are accelerated rapidly around the frozen pond.
- The spiraling form of the skater's whip is incidental to its true nature.
- The straightening of the whip is due to the tensile force running through all of the people.
- Here we're adding yet another force that straightens the assembly.
- Hence the arms do not have to be moving inward at all in order for filaments to form.

11.***[11th section possible title:] Spiral Bars and Arms
***Questions for this section:
= Could you clarify the clause: "But where they are nearest to each other"?
= And can you clarify the term "aggregates" etc in the sentence after that?*7221
= Could the last 5 sentences about filaments be moved up to what I call section 10, "Galactic Filaments"?

- It's even possible that the "like-likes-like" principle is responsible for the bars that connect many spiral arms to the elliptical bulges in the centers of the galaxies. (See __Figure 11.)
- The arms themselves are in centrifugal-centripetal equilibrium, given the inertial, gravitational, and electrostatic forces at play.
- And so are the stars in the elliptical bulges.
- But where they are nearest to each other, we see a mutual attraction, creating a central bar.
- This is an expected property if there is a charge separation between aggregates and their atmospheres, even if there is no net charge separation in each stellar system, much less any EM fields between the arms and the bulges.
__Figure 11. NGC 1300, a barred spiral galaxy.
- With this framework we can solve the "winding" problem.
- Essentially, the inner aspects of the arms have to be traveling faster, so that they will have more centrifugal force, and will not fall into the center.
- But if they are traveling faster, they should wrap around the galactic nucleus.
- So why don't spiral arms typically do this?
- The answer might be that this isn't a simple cyclonic inflow, and it might not even be an inflow.
- The spiral arms might be skater's whips, and the ends are traveling much faster than they should, while the tensile strength within the arms keeps them from flying away.
But that begs another question.
- If it was just a skater's whip, then eventually, the extra centrifugal force out at the end should get the arm fully outstretched, with the arm pointing straight at the galactic nucleus.
- Only if the arm encountered friction would it curl backwards, despite the centrifugal force.
- So is there any reason to think that there is any friction? Actually, there is.
- The interstellar medium is not a pure vacuum — it has something like 0.35 atoms/cm3.
- What if we're swinging an arm through this medium? We'll generate particle collisions (i.e., friction) that will slow down the arm, and the effect will be proportional to the speed and the density of the interstellar plasma.
- Now look closely at the lower arm of NGC 1300.
- The leading edge of the arm sports young, blue-white stars, while the trailing edge has old, yellow stars.
- This has led some researchers to conclude that there is some sort of shock wave rotating around the galaxy, and where the pressure is higher, stars are condensing, and when the shock wave moves on, the stars fall apart again.
- But that's gibberish, and we have a better answer.
- This is a skater's whip plowing through plasma, and new stars are forming on the leading edge, with the build-up of matter due to compression.
- The trailing edge is shielded from all of this, and has only the old stars that were there when the filament first formed.
[***Move the rest to section 10?]
- In the more general sense, the Universe is full of filaments of various sizes and shapes.2
- These have long defied explanation within any gravitational-hydrostatic framework.
- Some EM theorists have generalized the concept of Birkeland currents to explain the prevalence of filaments, but without establishing the electromotive forces at play, and without demonstrating that the currents would require material filaments.
- The "like-likes-like" principle is a far more plausible explanation.
__Figure 12. Filament in the Cygnus Loop.

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