Modeling Earth as a Machine and an Electrical Component
© spaceshiprider

Another addenda is added to main paper, "Brief History of Mankind's Chaotic Past.

A Brief History of Mankind's Chaotic Past: Post-Paleolithic Times (20,000 Years Ago) to the Present

By Douglas Ettinger, 2014


Addendum #3: Modeling and Diagraming Planet Earth as a Complicated Machine and an Electrical Component (Rev. 1 - 6/19/2014)


The included diagrams may aid in visualizing how planet Earth was affected by the colossal events that occurred about 11,500 years ago.The Earth resembles a gigantic, but delicate, combination of machinery and electrical components that man has already devised on very small scales. The Earth's following characteristics reveal these types of devices:

1. The Earth is an oblate spinning orb that resembles a gyroscope.The tilt and stability of this gyroscope is preserved by force fields provided by its parent star and especially its large Moon. Its angular momentum remains constant unless some unusual large force or celestial body enters the system.The initial motion for this gyroscopic device was provided by the kinetic energy of its original formation which does decay very slowly over time.This time decay is hardly noticeable in man's time on Earth.

2. According to modern seismology the Earth's outer core is liquid and has an inner spinning core of solid iron.A differential velocity gradient exists between the solid and liquid core which is later diagrammed.Due to hydrodynamic friction and magnetic coupling forces the core's kinetic energy is connected to the inner diameter of Earth's molten, but partially solidified rocky mantle.This interface acts like a large spherical fluid clutch that directly transfers kinetic energy to the mantle.The Earth's spin velocity from the solid core surface to the inside diameter of the mantle is non-linear through the liquid iron and then becomes more linear since the rocky materials of the mantle are cooler and more solid. The mantle's equatorial surface velocity eventually reaches 1674.4 km/hr which provides the time of Earth's day.

If extreme tidal forces act on the mantle over the Earth's polar region together with a decoupling of the magnetic forces caused by some significant external electrical and magnetic forces, then it is possible for this clutch or fluid coupling to slip.But, only some external torque applied to the outer mantle can actually cause real motion between the mantle and core.This slippage will, of course, cause a misalignment between them thereby changing the geoid or oblateness of the Earth's surface.The gyroscopic positioning of the entire planet will remain the same due to the very massive spinning liquid and solid iron core.Hopefully, such external disruptions rarely, if ever, occur.The postulation for this paper is that a 150 to 200 displacement of the mantle with respect to the core did occur about 11,500 years ago.

3. The solid iron core spins relatively faster than the varying hydrodynamic velocities of the liquid iron plasma surrounding it.Essentially, a differential current flow encircles the solid iron core and acts like an energized solenoid coil with an iron core.

4.The Earth's core as a system acts also like a hydromagnetic dynamo that generates a magnetic field.A dynamo theory has been devised to describe the process through which a rotating, convecting, and electrically conducting fluid can maintain a magnetic field over astronomical time scales.Convection currents of plasma in the Earth's outer core are organized into rolls called Taylor columns by the rotating Earth's Coriolis forces to create circulating electric currents which in turn generate a magnetic field that aligns itself with the core's spin axis.

5.The combination of the solenoid coil and the hydromagnetic dynamo effects create the magnetic dipole of planet Earth.This dipole magnet 1) causes solidifying rocks on the in the Earth's lithosphere to record the current dipole vector direction; 2) provides a magnetic field sufficient to aid migratory animals and point compasses; 3) guides and captures the charged particles of the solar winds at the polar regions causing auroras; and 4) creates the protecting magnetosphere to aid in shielding most of the Earth's outer atmosphere and surface from extremely high energy radiation.

6. The mantle and core act together to become a giant capacitor.A capacitor stores energy electrostatically in an electric field between conducting plates with a dielectric material between them.In the case of Earth the one conducting plate is represented by the conducting surfaces covered by water, especially the salty oceans.The collected charge is especially concentrated at the polar and high latitude regions.The dielectric is the Earth's solid lithosphere and mantle.The other conducting plate is represented by the liquid and solid iron core and possibly electrified magna within the lower mantle.Negative charges are predominantly collected over one pole either internally from the Earth's magnetic dynamo or externally from the solar winds.The negative charges follow the magnetic field direction toward one pole while the positive charges follow the magnetic field toward the opposite pole.The present arrangement of negative and positive charges at the poles appropriately aligns compass needles and other magnetic field strength measuring devices.The charged atoms, charged molecules, free ions, and free electrons follow magnetic field lines both in the ionosphere and on the lithosphere surface through liquid water.

The dielectric of the mantle always passes a small amount of leakage current and has an electric field strength limit, known as the breakdown voltage.If the charges are to build up massively at one or both poles, a sudden breakdown can occur that reverses the current flow and the dipole direction.This breakdown can either occur slowly over time as charges buildup linearly or very dramatically as is postulated during the Younger Dryas Period 11,500 years ago.This geomagnetic reversal as it is called has occurred numerous times, but not with any regularity.When a worldwide current reversal occurs the resulting voltage reversal changes the polarity of the circuit which in the case of Earth is detected by the reversal of the dipole magnetic vector.Any such rapid breakdown voltage between the charged materials on the lithosphere surface and surrounding atmosphere and the Earth's inner core will definitely cause excessive heat and surge melting of any existing polar ice cap.

This geomagnetic reversal or excursion of Earth is certainly not the result of the spin axis poles making an 1800 flip flop.This thought is total nonsense.Likewise, the inner core spin poles do not rotate 1800 either.Only the magnetic dipole does a flip by exchanging the North Pole for the South Pole and vice versa.The difference between a reversal and an excursion is that the excursion lasts briefly – perhaps 200 to 500 years and may not be detectable since molten rock on the surface was not plentiful.The excursion then slowly returns to its original dipole direction or chron as it is labeled by geologists.This magnetic field reversal or excursion has a similar analog to a capacitor having a breakdown voltage. The processes that cause the Sun's magnetic polarity reversal are similar but resonate over regular cycles due to a more homogeneous cross-section. Not only do celestial bodies have gravity fields due to their mass (large concentration of particles), but they have magnetic and electrical properties that affect its magnetosphere and its relationship to other neighboring celestial bodies, especially those that have close encounters such as happened 11,500 years ago between Earth and another highly magnetic body.

The first Diagram A shows a cross-section of Earth roughly to scale.To fully appreciate this picture a comparison of the radii, densities, masses, and percentage of total mass are listed. The next Diagram B shows the velocity profile of the Earth's cross-section depicting how the inner solid core rotates faster than the liquid outer core and transmits its motion to the inner diameter of the mantle.


Mantle & Lithosphere

Outer liquid iron core

Inner solid iron core

Mean radii (km)




Average density (g/cm3)




Mass (grams)

1.36 x 1026

55.76 x 1026

3.43 x 1026

% Total Mass





As is clearly revealed the gyroscopic motion and angular momentum of planet Earth is mostly a product of the spinning core and especially the liquid core.Any torque needed to rotate the mantle about the fluid inner core only needs to affect the moment of inertia of a very small portion of Earth's overall mass and moment of inertia.


© spaceshiprider, Charles Chandler


The following Diagram C shows schematically the close passing of a highly electrified and highly magnetic celestial body with Earth.The post-encounter schematic indicates what occurs to Earth after this intruding celestial body moves well away on its trajectory through the solar system.

The intruder is represented by a dipole bar magnet with its accompanying magnetosphere.The same representation is given Earth except that two dipole bar magnets are indicated:one represents the Earth's core and one represents the larger but weaker mantle.These schematics are certainly not to scale, but the Earth's magnetosphere is still represented.In current times that sphere is about 10 times the diameter of Earth.As the intruder passes over the north polar region of Earth the two magnetic fields attract and couple to each other.The highly electrically charged corona of the intruder releases high energy plasma arcing to Earth via Birkeland column currents.The Earth's polar region receives these strong electrical currents and rapidly dissipates them in rivers of current flow around the surface of the lithosphere toward the opposite pole.This current flow passes through the Earth's atmosphere, but especially favors the pathways of conducting rivers, seas, and oceans.

This sudden current flow on the surface of the mantle vastly increases its magnetic field strength which remains mostly separate from the magnetic field strength emanating from the Earth's core.As the intruder body moves away the Birkeland currents breakup producing their own magnetic fields at their terminations.The combination of the resulting magnetic field at the end of the Birkeland current columns and the intruder's magnetic field couple and pull on the increased strength of the magnetic field of the mantle creating torque on the mantle for a short period of time. This event causes a turning moment of the mantle with respect to the liquid iron core.The torque is terminated as the intruder moves farther away and the mantle ceases to slip.However, the mantle and core dipoles remain misaligned. The overall spin axis of the Earth is unaffected due to the predominant moment of inertia provided by the Earth's massive liquid and solid core.

The rivers of immense current flow set-up by the Birkeland current arcing toward Earth disturbs the natural capacitance of stored charge at the poles, thus creating a breakdown voltage through the mantle that in turn produces a rapid magnetic field reversal or excursion for both the core and the mantle.

Diagram D schematically demonstrates the global effects on Earth due to its close encounter with another celestial body occurring about 11,500 years ago.The first schematic depicts what is occurring during the close encounter and the second schematic shows the aftermath.

During this catastrophic event the magnetic fields of both the celestial intruder and Earth's become coupled.Massive electrical currents are released from the intruder's corona via Birkeland current- columns and are discharged onto the northern latitudes of Earth.These plasma discharges create rivers of current across the lithosphere traveling toward the opposite pole.The results of this dramatic event are listed:


1. The mantle slips about 15 to 20 degrees in latitude about the spin axis poles or about the inner core at the mantle-liquid iron interface.The apparent evidence is the present difference in the magnetic and spin axis poles.The magnetic pole axis is currently seeking to align itself with the spin axis while the previous residual magnetic effects on the mantle's surface are fading or disappearing.


2. The mantle's magnetic field travels with this displacement while the magnetic field of the core remains the same, aligned with the spin axis of the core.The spin axis is essentially unchanged.


3.The massive plasma discharge at the North Pole and its displacement along the surface of the lithosphere toward the South Pole disturbs the natural capacitance of charges gathered over each pole.These gathered charges over long periods of times act like a capacitor with the dielectric being the mantle at the polar regions and the electrical plates being the electrical charges collected at each polar region on the surface of the mantle and at the polar regions of the rotating liquid iron core.The Birkeland current columns from the intruder cause a large surge of current at both poles almost simultaneously causing a breakdown voltage that pushes current across the mantle's dielectric materials thereby causing a complete magnetic field reversal.A short magnetic field reversal was detected during a certain time spanning the Younger Dryas Period of about 11,500 years ago.This reversal lasted only a short period and is known as a geomagnetic excursion.


4.By far the worse effect is the resulting change of the Earth's geoid on the mantle.The planet is oblate due to centrifugal forces by about 13.5 miles on radius.The re-adjusting of the planet's crust causes great stresses that result in huge crustal ripples, earthquakes, increased volcanism, and the run-off of lakes and seas causing global flooding.


5.Other attendant effects are the re-location of the polar ice caps, melting of the period's glaciation and re-freezing in the shifted Polar regions, the surging variance of sea level, dramatic climatic changes, greater darkness due to a dusty atmosphere, and the extinction of flora and fauna primarily in the northern latitudes.

The explanation of the symbols for Diagram D are given below.

V=scalar velocity of rotation
→V =vectorial velocityof rotation
→B=vectorial magnetic field strength
Vc1=Earth's core velocity prior to catastrophic event
Vc2=Earth's core velocity after the event
Vm1 =Earth's mantle velocity prior to event
Vm2 =Earth's mantle velocity after the event
→Bc1=Core's magnetic field prior to event
→Bc2=Core's magnetic field after the event
→Bm1 =Mantle's magnetic field prior to event
→Bm2 =Mantle's magnetic field after the event
Briefly, representing these values mathematically:

Vc1 ≠ Vm1 ;Vc2 ≠ Vm2 ;Vc1 ≈Vc2 ;→Vm1 ≠ →Vm2,and

→Bc1 ≈→(-Bc2) ;→Bm1 ≠→(-Bm2)


© spaceshiprider, Charles Chandler


These previous models and schematics are very simplified, but provide an excellent starting point for supporting catastrophism and the "Electric Universe's" role in this event.Better computerized models, more mathematical treatment, and possibly even some laboratory experiments can help corroborate these ideas for catastrophes occurring on Earth.Specifically, the events that occurred spanning the Younger Dryas geological period are addressed in the ideas just presented.


References for Addendum 3:Modeling and Diagraming Planet Earth as a Complicated Machine and an Electrical Component

* Ampere's Law:

Richard Fitzpatrick (2007). "Ampère's Circuital Law".

Heinz E Knoepfel (2000). Magnetic Fields: A comprehensive theoretical treatise for practical use. Wiley. p. 4. ISBN0-471-32205-9

* Capacitors and capacitance:

Wikipedia, Capacitor

Capacitor charging and discharg"ing". All About Circuits. Retrieved 2009-02-19

* Dipole model of Earth's magnetic field:

Walt, Martin (1994). Introduction to Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. pp. 29–33. ISBN0-521-61611-5

* Dynamo theory:

Lovett, Richard A. (December 24, 2009). "North Magnetic Pole Moving Due to Core Flux".

"How does the Earth's core generate a magnetic field?". USGS FAQs. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 21 October 2013.

Weiss, Nigel (2002). "Dynamos in planets, stars and galaxies". Astronomy and Geophysics43 (3): 3.09–3.15. Bibcode:2002A&G....43c...9W. doi:10.1046/j.1468-4004.2002.43309.x

Larmor, J. (1919). "Possible rotational origin of magnetic fields of sun and earth". Electrical Review85: 412ff. Reprinted in Engineering, vol. 108, pages 461ff (3 October 1919).

* Earth's Core:

Buffett, B. A. (2000). "Earth's Core and the Geodynamo". Science288 (5473): 2007–2012. Bibcode:2000Sci...288.2007B. doi:10.1126/science.288.5473.2007

* Faraday's Law:

Sadiku, M. N. O. (2007). Elements of Electromagnetics (fourth ed.). New York (USA)/Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press. p. 386. ISBN0-19-530048-3

* Fluid Couplings:

Fluid couplingencyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com

* Geomagnetic excursions:

Roperch, P.; Bonhommet, N.; Levi, S. (1988). "Paleointensity of the earth's magnetic field during the Laschamp excursion and its geomagnetic implications". Earth and Planetary Science Letters88 (1-2): 209–219. Bibcode:1988E&PSL..88..209R. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(88)90058-1.

Gubbins, David (1999). "The distinction between geomagnetic excursions and reversals". Geophysical Journal International137 (1): F1–F4. Bibcode:1999GeoJI.137....1C. doi:10.1046/j.1365-246X.1999.00810.x. Retrieved 19 April 2012.

Rampino, Michael R. (1979). "Possible relationships between changes in global ice volume, geomagnetic excursions, and the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit". Geology7 (12): 584–587. Bibcode:1979Geo.....7..584R. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1979)72.0.CO;2

* Geomagnetic jerk:

P. De Michelis, R. Tozzi, and A. Meloni (2005), Geomagnetic jerks: observation and theoretical modeling. Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana, Vol. 76, pp. 957–960.

* Gyroscopes:

Gyroscope" by Sándor Kabai, Wolfram Demonstrations Project.

Discover magazine 20 things you didn't know about tunnels (Number 8).

Brief History of Gyroscopes

* Laschamp event:

Bonhommet, N.; Zähringer, J. (1969). "Paleomagnetism and potassium argon age determinations of the Laschamp geomagnetic polarity event". Earth and Planetary Science Letters6: 43–46. doi:10.1016/0012-821x(69)90159-9.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)

Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (16 October 2012). "An extremely brief reversal of the geomagnetic field, climate variability and a super volcano"

* Ice age polarity reversal:

"Ice age polarity reversal was global event: Extremely brief reversal of geomagnetic field, climate variability, and super volcano" Date: October 16, 2012; Source: Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences.

* Magnetic field reversal:

Coe, R. S.; Prévot, M.; Camps, P. (20 April 1995). "New evidence for extraordinarily rapid change of the geomagnetic field during a reversal". Nature374 (6524): 687. Bibcode:1995Natur.374..687C. doi:10.1038/374687a0.

* Magnetic pole:

Phillips, Tony (29 December 2003). "Earth's Inconstant Magnetic Field". Science@Nasa. Retrieved 27 December 2009.

* Magnetosphere:

Ratcliffe, John Ashworth (1972). An Introduction to the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere. CUP Archive. ISBN9780521083416.

* Magnetostratigraphy:

Opdyke, Neil D.; Channell, James E. T. (1996). Magnetic Stratigraphy. Academic Press. ISBN978-0-12-527470-8.

* Neoglaciation:

Wikipedia, neoglaciation

E.C. Pielou 1991:291; S.C. Porter and G.H. Denton, "Chronology of the neo-glaciation in the North American cordillera", American Journal of Science265 (1967:177-210), noted in E.C. Pielou, After the Ice Age: the Return of Life to Glaciated North America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press) 1991:15 note 13. Pielou discusses the neoglaciation in ch. 14 "The Neoglaciation" pp 291-310.

* Paleomagnetism:

McElhinny, Michael W.; McFadden, Phillip L. (2000). Paleomagnetism: Continents and Oceans. Academic Press. ISBN0-12-483355-1.

* Taylor Column:

Perry, J. Spinning tops. The "Operatives' lecture" of the British Association meeting at Leeds, 6th September, 1890. (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1910).

Taylor, G.I. (1922) "The motion of a sphere in a rotating liquid," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, vol. 102, pages 180–189.

Grace, S.F. (1922) "Free motion of a sphere in a rotating liquid parallel to the axis of rotation," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, vol. 102, pages 89–111.

Younger Dryas:

Wikipedia, Younger Dryas

Pinter, Nicholas; Scott, Andrew C.; Daulton, Tyrone L.; Podoll, Andrew; Koeberl, Christian; Anderson, R. Scott; Ishman, Scott E. (2011). "The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: A requiem". Earth-Science Reviews106 (3–4): 247. Bibcode:2011ESRv..106..247P. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.02.005.

Boslough, M.; K. Nicoll, V. Holliday, T. L. Daulton, D. Meltzer, N. Pinter, A. C. Scott, T. Surovell, P. Claeys, J. Gill, F. Paquay, J. Marlon, P. Bartlein, C. Whitlock, D. Grayson, and A. J. T. Jull (2012). "Arguments and Evidence Against a Younger Dryas Impact Event". GEOPHYSICAL MONOGRAPH SERIES198: 13–26. doi:10.1029/2012gm001209.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help);|accessdate= requires |url= (help)

Meltzer DJ, Holliday VT, Cannon MD, Miller DS (May 2014). "Chronological evidence fails to support claim of an isochronous widespread layer of cosmic impact indicators dated to 12,800 years ago". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. doi:10.1073/pnas.1401150111. PMID24821789

* Younger Dryas impact hypothesis:

Bunch TE, Hermes RE, Moore AM, et al. (July 2012). "Very high-temperature impact melt products as evidence for cosmic airbursts and impacts 12,900 years ago". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109 (28): E1903–12. Bibcode:2012PNAS..109E1903B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1204453109. PMID22711809.

← PREV Powered by Quick Disclosure Lite
© 2010~2021 SCS-INC.US