Wellhausen has this coming after the Babylonian Exile, which gave the Jewish elite the opportunity to develop a version centered around them. Once re-established in Canaan, they were vassals of Cyrus the Great, and they had all of the control over the citizens that they wanted, backed up by Cyrus, as long as Cyrus got what he wanted.
Friedman has this coming after , when refugees from Israel settled in Judah, but before D (during the reign of King Josiah).
Focused heavily on stories and laws about priests, matters of ritual, and concerns about dates, numbers, and measurements.
Refers to God as Elohim, but denies priesthood to anybody not descended from Aaron, including the priests from Israel, who claimed Moses as their ancestor.
Doesn't mention sacrifices.
Never once uses the words "mercy," "grace," or "repentance."