Tabular Comparison of Solar Models
© Charles Chandler
This has been superceded in outline format, which better supports nested sub-topics.
  • This is a comparison of solar models in how they explain various observable phenomena.
  • Incontrovertible data are listed in the "Evidence" rows.
  • Then the explanations of the data are presented. The models are listed in roughly the order in which they emerged.
  • Registered users can add comments at the end, which the page owner can integrate into the table.
    • Link to images and cite sources wherever possible.
    • Distances are in Mm (i.e., thousands of kilometers). Speeds are in km/s.
    • Avoid using the term "surface" as this is model-dependent; similarly, the location of the "photosphere" in contentious, and shouldn't be used to denote a location; use "limb" instead to refer to the outer edge of the Sun.
  • All of this is subject to revision. This is not a once-and-for-all debate, but a search for the truth. As we learn, our opinions change, and this comparison should have the flexibility to grow with our knowledge.
  Sun Formation
Evidence It's there, isn't it? (The topic of star formation is more thoroughly addressed in the Stellar Models section.)
Standard Sun formed from gravitational collapse of nebular cloud into hot ball of plasma.
This requires additional force from CDM.
Thornhill Sun formed from magnetic pinch of galactic electric current as hot ball of plasma.
Q: how does a z-pinch result in condensed matter?
Mozina Sun formed from supernova implosion making a small neutronium core inside an iron plasma.
Q: why doesn't the neutronium decay?
Callahan same as EU Model, but the plasma ball was mostly iron and hollow inside.
Q: what prevents the hollow core from collapsing — is the iron shell thick enough?
Chandler Dusty plasma collapsed due to "like-likes-like" body force. On implosion, compression ionization created electrostatic layering, and the electric force keeps the matter consolidated.
  Energy Source
Evidence (see the Power section)
Standard Fusion in the core by gravitational pressure, releasing heat.
Q: is the pressure sufficient for this, taking the Coulomb barrier into account?
Birkeland Internal electromagnet, releasing heat, electrons and protons.
Q: what's the magnetomotive force?
Thornhill Electron stream from galactic electric circuit releasing protons.
Q: would there be visible evidence of the stream, through space, and especially at the footpoint(s)?
Mozina Neutron decay releasing heat, electrons and protons from neutronium core.
Callahan Aether from galactic center forming and releasing electrons in hollow solid iron globe.
Chandler Electrostatic potential from compressive ionization, released as arc discharges.
Evidence 3.80 × 1026 watts,1 in the form of 5525 K blackbody radiation, (4600 K on limb, 6400 K normal to surface), with some absorption and emission lines
Standard fusion in core generates gamma rays that propagate through radiative zone, getting redshifted by a wide variety of non-BB processes
Q: how is the model pressure in the core sufficient to overcome the Coulomb barrier in the core?
Q: convection has been found to be insufficient to carry enough heat to the surface, so how does the sparse plasma conduct the heat?
Q: what are the chances of a combination of non-BB processes producing a BB curve?
Thornhill Electric current through Sun causes ohmic heating.
Q: current from where, and to where?
Mozina .7 Mm deep neon layer is 4000 K hotter than underlying silicon, so most of the BB radiation comes from the neon layer
Q: what about limb darkening — could a layer only .7 Mm deep vary from 4600 K to 6400 K, with granules redistributing the heat every 20 minutes?
Chandler atomic oscillation in supercritical fluid at a depth of 4~20 Mm, due to ohmic heating from electric current, where electrons are emitted by a negative layer at a depth of 20~125 Mm, attracted to the positive heliosphere
  Neutrinos vs. Power
Evidence Electron neutrino output indicates fusion produces 1/3 of the Sun's energy.
Standard fusion is 100% of power; between the Sun & Earth, 2/3 of the electron neutrinos change into muon or tau neutrinos
Chandler 2/3 of solar power comes from ohmic heating & charge recombination; 1/3 comes from nuclear fusion in the stepped leaders of arc discharges inside the Sun
  Optical Depth
Standard .3~.7 Mm
Q: isn't 6000 K hydrogen plasma transparent?
Mozina .3~.7 Mm
Q: isn't 6000 K hydrogen plasma transparent?
Chandler 4+ Mm, with the 4600 K BB radiation coming from the top of this range, and 6400 K BB radiation coming from deeper, where greater pressure results in faster oscillations
Evidence spectroscopy (Anders & Grevesse, 1989), inferences from helioseismology and from average density estimates
Standard thoroughly mixed, 75% hydrogen, 25% helium
Thornhill mostly heavy element core and lighter elements above the core
Robitaille hydrogen
Mozina mass separated
  • photosphere: neon
  • .7~4.8 Mm below: silicon
  • 4.8~? Mm below: iron crust
  • neutronium core
Q: doesn't differential rotation, 0~200 Mm below, indicate fluids, not solids?
Callahan hollow solid iron with light elements atmosphere
Chandler mass separated
  • convective zone: H, He
  • radiative zone: Fe, Ni
  • core: Pt, Os
Evidence inferences from helioseismology and from average density estimates
Standard per Dalsgaard Model
Q: what about the Coulomb barrier?
Q: in a smooth gradient, what produces the helioseismic shadows at .27 and .7 SR?
Robitaille 1408 kg/m3 throughout
Q: what produces the helioseismic shadows at .27 and .7 SR?
Chandler 3-tier, producing helioseismic shadows at .27 and .7 SR (see Abundances)
Evidence width: 1 Mm
duration: 20 minutes
dynamics: Bénard cells (updraft in center, downdraft around outside
speed up: 2 km/s (supersonic)
speed down: 7 km/s (hypersonic)
Standard convection due to +/- buoyancy (hot plasma rises, releases heat, cools, and falls)
Q: how does buoyancy create supersonic updrafts, and hypersonic downdrafts?
Birkeland cathode tufting
Thornhill anode tufting
Q: what produces the distinct limb?
Scott anode tufting, with power regulated by PNP transistor
Q: how is a transistor instantiated in the excellent conductivity of 6000 K plasma?
Mozina cathode tufting
Callahan cathode tufting
Chandler cathode tufting
depth: 4~5 Mm, as determined by the normal dynamics of Bénard cells, by helioseismic evidence of different flows below 5 Mm, and possibly by SDO "first light" images
updraft: + thermal buoyancy plus electron drag
downdraft: electric force pulls ions back down
Evidence bright streaks down the sides of granules, easiest seen on the limb, associated with magnetic fields in the intergranular lanes
Standard strong magnetic fields reduce gas density, making it nearly transparent, exposing deeper layers that are hotter2
Q: how do magnetic fields reduce the density of hydrogen plasma?
Q: would thinner plasma still be negatively buoyant?
Chandler ohmic heating in downdrafts creates more heat, as the electron speed + the downdraft speed results in higher energy collisions; magnetic fields are effects, not causes
Evidence "torches" found in the valleys between granules that last 15 minutes, coinciding with enhanced magnetic fields, and with particle speeds of 20 km/s (hypersonic), typically forming an Eiffel Tower shape3
Standard p-waves accelerate plasma upward at .5 km/s, and magnetic flux tubes focus it into jets
Q: how do p-waves create hypersonic jets?
Q: how does the magnetic force operate on hydrogen plasma, which has a weak magnetic dipole?
Thornhill solar~galactic current (inflowing electrons)
Q: if the spicules are the footpoints of the external power source, why don't they produce more total photons than the granules, like the footpoints in a plasma lamp?
Chandler electric current through faculae graduates to arc discharge; magnetic fields are generated by the electric current, and magnetic pinch effect helps consolidate the charge streams
Evidence solenoidal magnetic fields; cooler umbra; see Sunspots
Chandler increased solar~heliospheric current, in the presence of the Sun's overall magnetic field, produces solenoid
  Coronal Loops
Evidence most visible in Fe IX/X/XV emissions; oriented along magnetic field lines; current density: 1~3 A/m2
Standard energy from magnetic reconnection
Q: why do the most powerful loops form after reconnection events that should have released all of the energy, such as flares?
Mozina arc discharges from oppositely charged regions, based on Birkeland's terrella experiments
Q: what is the insulator that keeps the charges separate until the discharge?
Q: why do the most powerful loops form after flares that should have discharged all of the potential?
Chandler magnetic field lines connecting active regions of opposite polarity, and supporting B-field-aligned electric currents if there are charge disparities
  Solar Moss
Evidence uneven distribution of iron plasma near active regions
Standard above limb; associated with hot magnetic plasma loops arching above active regions
Q: was the elevation determined by photogrammetry, or by assumptions about heat stratification above the photosphere, based on assumptions concerning the measurement of temperature by degree of ionization?
Mozina below limb; evidence of solid surface at a depth of 4800+ km
Chandler below limb; evidence of varying electric fields that selectively attract iron, which is capable of a higher degree of ionization than lighter elements
Evidence emerging from broad areas, particles accelerate away from the Sun
Standard solar wind
Chandler flow of free electrons, from solar cathode to heliospheric anode, through stationary positive ions, with some "electron drag" accelerating the positive ions in the same direction
  Solar Wind
Evidence slow wind: 400 m/s, equatorial during quiet periods, all over during active periods;
fast wind: 800 m/s, polar during quiet periods
Standard thermal expansion?
Chandler electron drag accelerates atomic nuclei, which eventually get neutralized, thereafter unaffected by E-field


1. Barbier, B. (2013): NASA's Cosmicopia — Ask Us — Sun.

2. Scharmer, G.; Kiselman, D. (2012): Solar faculae explained.

3. Zirin, H.; Cameron, R. (2012): Dynamics of Solar Spicules.

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