Magnetic Pinches and Marklund Convection
The basic idea here is that Marklund convection within z-pinched plasma causes the aggregation of matter into stars.
by PersianPaladin » 2013-03-18, 07:11
Alfvén et al. (1963)
... it is convenient to discuss separately the properties of weakly ionized gases, where the collisions of the charged particles with the neutral gas molecules are the most important, and those of highly ionized gases, where collisions between charged particles play a dominant role. It must then be observed that due to the large effective cross-section for collisions between charged particles, such collisions can be dominant even at a relatively low degree of ionization. Thus, as far as collision processes are concerned, plasmas with degrees of ionization larger than 1 per cent are to be considered as highly ionized.
Any neutral particles in even a 1.2% ionized plasma cross-sectional region are going to be influenced by electro-magnetic forces, albeit indirectly. They thus become overwhelmed by the electrical and magnetic forces at work.
Peratt (1992)
"The degree of ionization in interplanetary space and in other cosmic plasmas may vary over a wide range, from fullγ ionized to degrees of ionizatίon of only a fractiοn of a percent. Even weakly ionized plasma reacts strongly to electromagnefic fields since the ratiο of the electromagnetic force to the gravitatiοnal force is 39 orders of magnitude. For example, although the solar photospheric plasma has a degree of ionization as low as 10^-4, the major part of the condensable components is still largely ionίzed. The "neutral" hydrogen (HI) regions around galaxies are also plasmas, although the degree of ionizationis only 10^-4."
Now, your contention that Marklund Convection only compresses ionized matter and that "ionized matter and condensed matter are mutually exclusive" is somewhat of a misnomer.
When a plasma is only partially ionized, the electromagnetic forces act on the non-ionized components only indirectly through the viscosity between the ionized and non-ionized constituents. [..] This mechanism provides a very efficient convection process for the accumulation of matter from plasma.
Thus, even the neutral (although we should really call them quasi-neutral plasma components) elements within the plasma cloud are dominated by the plasma processes.
And of course, further ionization can take place:-
"If both a plasma and a neutral gas are so thin that collisional momentum exchange is negligible, one would expect them to move through each other without appreciable interaction. That this need not be so was suggested by Alfven (1942) .. He introduced the hypothesis that if the relative velocity exceeds a certain critical value, a strong interactίοn and rapid ionization of the neutral gas would take place. [..] Nevertheless, the hypothesis was confirmed later in a lαboratοry experiment [Fahleson 1961] . For many yeas it remained a mystery, but experiments have now clarified the phenomenon at least in general terms. What is inνοlνed is an instability that transfers energy from ions to electrons, so that theγ become capable of ionizing"
Now, Marklund wrote that the matter in a Birkeland Current is sorted according to their ionization potential. The elements with the LOWEST ionization potential are brought closest to the axis of the current column. The convectional process via the viscosity layer between ionized and non-ionized matter referred to by Perratt et al, was expanded on in Marklund's paper. The elements brought to the axis are usually the heaviest elements. The intense heat and magnetic pressure in pinches is more than enough to create solid accretion of matter in dusty clouds, particularly when the discharge quenches. Experiments by plasma physicist C.J. Ransom, for example - found that "martian blueberries" can be formed in the lab when certain electrical discharges strike layers of hematite and compress them into balls. Plasmoids seem to form in interstellar clouds in the densest parts of plasma filaments surrounded by dust, and this filamentary form of star formation does seem to be the important method (as the mainstream keeps finding, albeit erroneously attributing to "sonic booms"). Once the discharge quenches the plasmoid may scatter or become cometary and perhaps start fissioning or ejecting matter which enters into a region of lower current-density. This can possibly account for binary and triple star systems as well. The ejection of plasmoids from a cosmic electric discharge was also alluded to by Halton Arp when he found out that Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN's) had a strong relationship (in terms of energy and brightness contours) to that of Quasars - as well as apparent visual connections that back up the statistical relationship. Active Galactic Nuclei may well be particularly electrically-stressed plasmoids. Now - the implications of this is that bright QSO's (quasar stellar objects) forming as a result of plasma fissioning should not preclude the likelihood of star-formation or even planetary formation via similar electrical processes.
Indeed, Arp suggested that quasars eventually form into galaxies - with star-formation also potentially occuring. This fits in with Perrat's galactic simulations via the interaction of Birkeland Currents.
Now, back to the predictions of Marklund and Perratt and Alfven's "critical ionization velocity" regarding the sorting of matter in field-aligned currents:-
"Observations of neutral hydrogen (HI) emission profiles produced by gas in the local interstellar medium are found to be characterized by four linewidth regimes. Dominant and pervasive features have widths on average of 5.2, 13, and 31 km/s and a very broad component approximately 50 km/s wide. A striking coincidence exists between these linewidths and the magnitudes of the critical ionization velocities of the most abundant atomic species in interstellar space: 6 km/s for sodium and calcium, 13 km/s for carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, 34 km/s for helium, and 51 km/s for hydrogen. The data relate to observations near neutral hydrogen structures that are filamentary."
Why is this significant? If the C IV is found with such a width-profile in galaxies then we aren't merely talking about mainly gravito-centric processes orbiting the center of galaxies.
Regarding star-formation, we have this 2011 presentation by the European Space Agency. I am sure Alfven and EU proponents in general, would find a lot of problems with the appeals to Magnetohydrodynamic processes and gravity-dependent fluid-dynamic processes that are used: -
Instead, voltage differences in a plasma and double-layers are likely to be dominant. Astrophysicists with their MHD and gravito-accretion models ignored Alfven's appeals to consider double-layers as a unique stellar object back in the 80's. While Alfven did push for a certain gravito-influenced star formation model earlier, in his latter days he became less certain and was more open to EM forces as being dominant.
Hannes Alfvén
There is a general belief that stars are forming by gravitational collapse; in spite of vigorous efforts no one has yet found any observational indication of confirmation. Thus the 'generally accepted' theory of stellar formation may be one of a hundred unsupported dogmas which constitute a large part of present-day astrophysics.
Of course, gravitation could have a role in these plasma filamentary clouds where star formation is being observed - but this is via the process of "gravito-electrodynamics" that applies to plasmas and which EU proponents recognise:-
Not the traditional view of stellar accretion and the language of fluid-dynamics and "neutral" gases. And you know the funny thing that Anthony Perratt pointed out a few years back? He said that the astrophysicists who were developing "accretion-disc models" were constantly failing to get results without using the same electrodynamic plasma functions and models that Perratt had used at Los Alamos Labs. And of course now - we see astronomers becoming "surprised" when we see star formation confined to consistent-width plasma filaments with the strongest star formation at intersectional regions. Precisely the prediction of EU, which shows that the densest proximity of current sheaths creates a focus of energy via the pinch-mechanism. The radio-wave emitting filaments of "dark matter" also seem to form galaxies at the densest intersectional regions of filaments. Coincidence? No. This has also been predicted. Of course, the Bennett Pinch is ignored by mainstreamers. Too bad!


Alfvén, H.; Fälthammar, C. (1963): Cosmical electrodynamics: fundamental principles. Clarendon Press

Peratt, A. L. (1992): Physics of the plasma universe. Springer-Verlag

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