Published by William Clowes (London); 1st Edition edition (1939)
- General remarks ....3
- An Historical survey ....3
- Synopsis ....6
- THE MAJOR MACHINERY
- magnetic definitions.
- The equatorial field ....19
- Magnetic force components ....19
- Observational material ....20
- the working model.
- Description ....22
- Conclusions — the dynamic relationship ....23
- the earth as a magnet.
- The historical data ....24
- The molecular theory of magnetism ....25
- The structure of terrestrial magnetism ....27
- the magnetic inequalities.
- Preliminary details ....31
- The sun-earth-moon system ....34
- the lunar inequalities.
- The lunar path ....35
- The abstraction of the lunar monthly inequality ....36
- The abstraction of the lunar hourly inequality ....37
- Outline of the lunar hourly inequality ....39
- The perigee-perihelion new moon ....41
- The data of the monthly inequality .. .....46
- Interpretation of the monthly inequality ....51
- Time factors in the monthly inequality ....53
- The interpretation of the lunar hourly inequality ....57
- Higher latitude deviations ....65
- Lunar inequalities in the polar regions ....66
- Other lunar effects ....66
- the solar inequalities.
- Solar action on the earth's field developing the balance inequality ....69
- The seasonal balance effects ....75
- The semi-diurnal and day-time inequalities ....77
- The daylight inequality in V ....87
- The daylight inequality in H ....92
- The daylight inequality of declination ....100
- The seasonal effects—introduction ....104
- The solar and terrestrial angles of interaction — definitions ....106
- The solar and terrestrial angles of interaction — details ....107
- The seasonal changes ....112
- Seasonal unbalanced moments ....115
- Electro-magnetic factors contributing to the variation of the earth's orbit ....117
- The annual inequalities—method of determination ....120
- The nature of the annual inequalities ....130
- An electro-magnetic interpretation of Kepler's laws ....137
- Equilibrium ....146
- the polar inequalities.
- The barometric generalization ....152
- The detail relationships between the barometric and magnetic polar waves ....163
- Antarctic surges ....175
- The polar vortex ....178
- Homage to explorers ....181
- THE ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WORLD AROUND US
- The earth as an electro-magnetic sphere ....185
- Cirrus clouds ....191
- Electro-magnetism in the atmosphere ....192
- Universal design ....194
- The principles of magnetic flow in the polar and equatorial fields ....199
- Magnetic experiments demonstrating equilibrium in the equatorial field ....199
- Reciprocal electrical and magnetic relationships ....200
- Cases E and F — the vertical current ....212
3.A. THE EARTH AS AN ELECTRO-MAGNETIC SPHERE
The last part of this work has been cast in the form of a light running commentary upon the general investigation. Here a number of phenomena have been linked together without any attempt to treat them in the exhaustive scientific manner, although some details have been investigated more fully than is indicated. This is, therefore, merely a provisional account outlining some of the things that have invited attention during the major investigation, and they are inserted because they round off and give emphasis to the electro-magnetic nature of the world about us.
At an early stage in the main inquiry a return was made to the old idea of Peltier that the earth is a sphere of negative electrification and that the potential falls off outwardly from the surface towards the zone of equi-potential envisaged in Section VI, 16 [Equilibrium]. If this is so then the atmosphere surrounding the earth will exhibit positive characteristics relatively to the surface, and this is the predominant feature of atmospheric electricity. It is also found that the lines of equi-potential are crowded together near the surface and are spread further apart as distance from the earth increases. In accordance with this the difference in potential develops with recession from the earth, first of all rapidly and then more gradually up to the greatest heights yet reached by man (24).
The development of this idea requires a return to another old idea that has never been discarded, i.e. that positive and negative electricity are merely positive and negative relatively to a mean and do not imply two separate fluids. In the case of the earth this mean is furnished by the surface potential of the planet. Some treatises on electricity point out, and it is recognized in most quarters, that the general facts of electrical flow are equally well satisfied upon a one- or a two-fluid theory, and it is only the greater convenience for general purposes which has caused the two-fluid theory to come into common use. When, however, the two-fluid theory is extended to cosmical requirements it breaks down and fails. Incidentally the application of the single-fluid theory considerably simplifies ideas relating to modern atomic physics.
These ideas have been worked out in considerable detail, but it has not been considered desirable to expand the present work to include this. The general idea conceives the earth to be a sphere of considerable negative potential, and obviously all surface objects carry this potential, subject, however, to a limited and gradual variation from point to point in accord with the indications of terrestrial magnetism. If this is so, man exists and has developed with the surface potential as part of his essential environment and any departure — up or down — from the mean entails serious consequences for him, as in the case of electric shock.
It also follows that if electro-magnetism occupies a fundamental position in cosmic and atomic physics it must exercise a profound influence on human development. A number of radiative details indicate that this is so, and the increasing use of radiation in therapeutic practice indicates that medical opinion is becoming well aware of this.
This also gives rise to some interesting conjectures, for at the present time it is a curious fact that the progressive sections of humanity occupy the areas of western declination of the globe, and thus a peculiar significance attaches to the outbreak about one hundred years ago of a new area of western declination in eastern Asia; this coincides very accurately with the resurgence of culture and development in Japan, for this country is now encircled by the new agonic, and it is gradually extending into China (see map, Fig. 3).
It would appear that this is not pure coincidence for western declination permits a more thorough degree of insolation in the northern hemisphere than is possible in the case of eastern declination. This is readily seen if the earth rays are projected from a globe and then rotated against an imaginary solar sweep, for it will be evident that the flow moves naturally and easily to the west, whereas rays of eastern declination impound and embay the natural flow of the sweep. By the same token western declination permits a deeper and fuller penetration of the direct or straight line solar radiation.
In the light of modern views of the beneficial effect of the right degree of solar radiation this factor of declination must be of importance. A note of warning is perhaps necessary to non-technical minds, for man reaches his highest development only in the most suitable environment and therefore it is only the right degree of radiation that is advantageous, excessive exposure to radiation or insolation is not beneficial and can be definitely harmful. Thus the excessive insolation of the tropics does not benefit the inhabitants there and the deficiencies of the polar regions restrict development in those areas. It would appear, therefore, that it is only in middle latitudes, where the terrestrial and solar radiations are most efficiently intermixed, that the highest development can be attained.
If these conclusions are sound then the age-old trend for human outflow and progress to follow a westward path is not a purely adventitious occurrence, but is determined by the westward march of the magnetic agonics, and human greatness is not the prerogative of race but moves from nation to nation as the wave of electro-magnetic efficiency pursues its deliberate progress from continent to continent around the globe.
It is beyond the province of this work to relate historical periods with the magnetic march. At present very scanty information is available in relation to the magnetic epochs of the past. Bauer (25) has attempted to define the march of the agonics, to which he assigns a period of 2,000 years, whilst a superficial inquiry during the present work suggested 1,600 years; but the development of a new agonic in eastern Asia further complicates the question, the full inquiry is therefore willingly assigned to the future.
A detail that relates closely to this matter was happened upon by chance. When turning up a reference in Comptes Rendu attention was directed to the work of M. Moreaux in defining the anomaly of the Paris Basin. This anomaly is of exceptional magnitude and consists of departures from the normal curves of the magnetic elements, extending in some cases to complete inversion, as in the case of the annual inequality in V.
The details of the anomaly have been fully investigated by Moreaux (26) after the manner of Riicker and Thorpe (27). The latter, in a magnetic survey of the British Isles, show clearly that an anomaly exists along the eastern side of Great Britain; by connecting this with the work of Moreaux it is evident that the anomaly extends from Scotland in the north to the Cote d'Azure in southern France. The main effects are to be seen in the basins of the Seine and Rhone, but collateral effects are traced easily at Perpignan and are not entirely lost at Tortosa, near the mouth of the Ebro in Spain.
Moreaux is inclined to follow the usual course and to attribute the anomaly to geological formations or to rock masses in which iron is present in considerable quantities. It is, however, very improbable that this can have more than a very local influence. Geological formations of the most varied kind traverse France, principally in an east to west direction, and therefore cross the anomaly transversely, whilst the latter moves indifferently over the stratified palasozoic rocks of the south, the igneous rocks of Auvergne, and the cretaceous system of the Paris basin. In England the anomaly continues over the tertiary deposits of the Thames estuary and the mesozoic rocks of the eastern counties, it touches the palaeozoic system of the north, and finally grazes the granitic rocks of the Scottish Highlands.
It is almost unthinkable that such a heterogeneous assortment of rocks could be the determining cause of the anomaly. It appears far more probable that physiographical features canalize the electromagnetic flow across the area affected and so produce exceptional conditions. If a physical map of south-west Europe is consulted (Fig. 49) it will be seen that France occupies an exceptional position between the water areas of the Mediterranean and the North Sea. To the east the mass of the Alps presents a formidable bastion against electro-magnetic flow, and to the west the Iberian Peninsula, with its rock masses, elevated plateaus, and the massif of the Pyrenees constitutes a barrier to the electro-magnetic path. Between these obstacles France provides a well-watered neck of land in which the valleys of the Seine and Rhone, with their considerable streams, provide a direct path towards the pole for the embayed electro-magnetic force.
It is possible to see how the Paris anomaly is produced by plotting the earth rays on a map of fairly large scale. This procedure reveals a crowding together of the earth rays over the whole of France and particularly in the valleys of the Seine and Rhone. Fig. 49 is reproduced from large-scale maps, and the earth rays are represented as one geographical degree apart on the fifty-fifth parallel of latitude, but on the forty-fifth parallel they have closed in to three-quarters of a degree. This represents an increased intensity of 25 per cent, but where the anomaly is most strongly developed, as in the Seine Valley, there is an increase of 12 per cent, in intensity in two degrees of latitude, which is about five times as great as the general increase mentioned above.
In Fig. 49 the earth rays appear as nearly parallel lines of force, but normally the lines should open southward, in the same way as the meridians of longitude widen on all maps produced by orthographic projection. It follows, therefore, that normally the earth rays decrease in magnetic intensity from pole to equator, but over France and Britain the rays remain more or less parallel, so that there is a relative increase in intensity as compared with places of similar latitude.
The exceptional nature of the anomaly of the Paris Basin is further emphasized by a bulge in the lines of equal H force as they pass across the English Channel. Deflections of a like nature occur at Bering Strait and Baffin Bay, where similar conditions may produce anomalies of a more limited type.
Phenomena of the same order but on a smaller scale are to be observed across the isthmus of the Scandinavian Peninsula, where the Arctic Sea is separated from the Gulf of Bothnia. Here, the difficulty of interpreting the magnetic records from Bossekop led to the investigation of local conditions, these resemble in some measure those of the Paris Basin. Bossekop is situate on the deep Alten Fjord and the depression of the fjord is extended southward by the Alten River in the direction of the Gulf of Bothnia; on the other side of the watershed the Ounas, Kemi, and Torneo Rivers flow into the Gulf of Bothnia and their valleys provide a channel for electro-magnetic flow. The Bossekop magnetic records differ materially from those at the not very distant hill station of Sodankyla and, as in Paris, the greatest abnormality occurs in the V curves.
In view of the possible favourable influence of western declination on human development on account of the more efficient electromagnetic interaction, it would appear that similar advantages may accrue from these anomalies.
In the account of the anomalies slight emphasis has been put on the presence of water, for its homogeneous nature and relative conducting powers contrast favourably with the poor conducting qualities of the air at surface levels, and the contrast is even more favourable when compared with heterogeneous rock masses. Birkeland (28) in his comprehensive study of magnetic storms appears to have arrived at somewhat similar conclusions, and in particular he considered that the North Sea provided a path of exceptional service for currents moving to and from the pole.
The question of the water path is not of great moment but, as it has been mentioned, it may forward some scientific interests to record that island stations present magnetic curves that differ in detail from inland stations. This is true even of large islands, as is shown by the British and Japanese records; in particular the curves of declination show that the morning eastward movement has a narrower development at island stations than that given by continental records. Results of this nature might be expected, for the conducting power of water should tend to produce a more even world distribution of magnetic influences.
The progressive changes in declination appear to have another influence that is of importance to man. In view of the definite connection between electro-magnetism and atmospheric movements it would seem probable that this is one of the influences which bring about those slow climatic changes which the records of the past show to be in continual progress. If the present area of western declination slowly gives place to eastern declination it seems evident that this must affect the path which atmospheric depressions tend to follow. Thus in middle latitudes eastern declination will facilitate a poleward path, whilst western declination will oppose a more pronounced resistance to this path and the depressions will move with a more easterly path towards the pole. This will not be elaborated here, but its significance will be evident to meteorologists.
The long period climatic changes of a cosmic nature have been referred to in earlier sections (VI, 11-12).
3.B. CIRRUS CLOUDS
Whilst the basic ideas of this investigation were formulating themselves it was necessary to look for suggestions of the right direction for inquiry. It seemed probable that indications of the forces at work might have passed unnoticed in the things about us. Casual attention was given to cloud forms and in some early observations it was found that long cirrus streamers were aligned with the magnetic meridian during the night. This turned out to be largely chance, but it served to focus attention upon cloud direction and form, particularly as it is at once evident that the peculiar structure of cirrus clouds with their long filaments and tufted ends readily lend themselves to explanation upon electro-magnetic lines, as they are almost perfect replicas on a large scale of what is known as the electric flame, i.e. a flame subjected to the tension of an electro-magnetic field.
The distinctive structure of cirrus, which so frequently displays long streamers with combed filaments at right angles to the main stem, has long exercised meteorologists to account for this exceptional structure. Curious curved winds, or currents of changing radii, have been introduced to explain them, but an electro-magnetic wind is the only one that can "blow" in two directions at the same time.
The right-angle structure of the filaments is readily explained as the extension of electro-magnetic particles with force vectors at right angles to one another in the normal electro-magnetic manner, which is always exhibited when particles are stressed in an electro-magnetic field. Additional weight is lent to this interpretation by the fact that so-called "false cirrus" is frequently associated with thunder cloud, but if this explanation is the true one then the epithet "false" is undeserved, although perhaps the distinction is a useful one.
It was not long before evidence began to accumulate that during the evening, about the time of sunset, the cirrus streamers became definitely aligned with the sun. Continued observation over a period of 16 years has amply confirmed this, and when circumstances are favourable the cirrus streamers can be seen to orientate themselves into alignment with the sun at the time of sunset. The translation may be from north-south to east-west or from any intermediate angle in which the streamers may lie. In certain cases the movement may be a bodily one, this usually applies to short lengths of cloud only, although on exceptional occasions considerable lengths may be translated; more frequently the phenomena consist of fractionation of the cloud with reformation along the new alignment. The process of re-orientation takes place during a period that is seldom longer than 20 minutes and after sunset the plumed structure of the cirrus frequently fades. In many cases the cloud returns to its former alignment.
It is curious that this period of re-orientation has not been noted previously. There however appears to be a good reason for its occurrence, for at the evening hour the direct straight line rays from the sun will graze the limb of the earth and for a short period an intense transverse radiation will traverse the cloud masses. This intense electromagnetic radiation will re-orientate the molecules of the cloud into coincidence with the lines of force of the field of radiation and a general re-orientation and extension of the cloud will take place. That this is the true cause appears to be confirmed by the fact that low cumulus cloud can upon some occasions be seen to put out cirrus streamers at this evening hour and these conform to the solar alignment.
There is a visual phenomenon allied to cloud formation which is not only interesting in itself but almost certainly forms the initial part of most atmospheric processes. It may readily be discerned on summer evenings and not infrequently during the winter; all that is necessary is a near-by tree silhouetted against a dark background. With these conditions a little intensive observation will disclose that the tree is being cascaded with an etherial display of exquisite tiny irridescent pearly balls that appear to be thrown off by the tree, and these dance hither and thither with a fairy-like abandon of graceful motion.
It seems a safe conclusion that this is but a natural exemplification of the phenomena which C. T. R. Wilson (29) has demonstrated in his expansion chamber and that the tiny balls are droplets of moisture accumulated round a hygroscopic medium such as an ionized atom or a speck of dust, and the whole is put into motion by the discharge into the atmosphere of electrified particles as part of the life process of the tree. The phenomena respond with active sympathy to the electrical condition of the atmosphere, and the motion becomes particularly intense during thundery weather or while a magnetic storm is in progress.
The discharge that takes place from a tree has already been measured in S. Africa by Schonland (30). In this case the tree had been sawn through at the trunk in order that the electrical flow that takes place during a thunderstorm might be measured, but it seems probable that the flow would be considerably greater whilst the life processes of the tree were in full and uninterrupted operation. Schonland, however, appears to regard the phenomenon as a special condition induced by the presence of thunder cloud and has not considered it as part of the everyday order of nature.
Given the right conditions the phenomena can be observed in every degree of activity from a slow almost imperceptible discharge, right up to the vigorous motion of what has long been known as St. Elmo's fire, for the latter is only an exemplification of the phenomena in a particularly active state, which is induced by tense electrical conditions in the atmosphere.
St. Elmo's fire is essentially a point discharge and therefore requires a pole or mast, or better still, an iron standard, for its effective operation. Incidentally an urban ventilating stack, such as are provided by most town authorities, proved to be a very useful object for gauging the degree of electrical activity in the atmosphere and on occasions gave very good displays of St. Elmo's fire. When the pipe was very active it was observed that the white line that frequently outlines buildings and other objects in the late evening, became exceptionally visible. Most people regard this as an illusion, but by careful observation it is easily possible to see that it consists of a concentration, close to the surface, of an intense degree of the movement described above, for the motion of individual particles can be detected by close watching.
In foggy weather the motion of the particles can be observed at close quarters, for they are then swollen by an accumulation of moisture about them, in this instance, also, a dark background is of advantage. In dull weather the phenomena can be seen indistinctly in the atmosphere at all hours of the day and this gives rise to that familiar difficulty of deciding whether it is actually raining or not. In brilliant sunshine, however, the movement becomes so intense that the eye is conscious only of the general effect of light. This, and the brilliance of the outline phenomena during abnormal evening conditions, leads to the general electro-magnetic proposition that daylight is produced whenever the electro-magnetic particles are raised to a high degree of activity. Thus on the day side of the earth, activity of this order is produced by the conflict between the solar sweep and the opposite motion of the field of the earth. This is a simple extension of the Bohr theory of the electronic emission of light, for the conflict between the fields produces that continuous expansion and contraction of the atomic orbits which this theory demands. Similarly the reduced degree of activity that occurs on the outward side of the earth accounts for the luminance of the night —and this has heretofore remained an unsolved problem.
Thus, how exquisite is the design of nature. Here the friction produced by the conflict of the solar and terrestrial fields produces the heat and light of day and instead of the heat being a waste product, as when friction is produced in the contrivances of man, it is here turned to the beneficent purpose of irradiating and sustaining life and produces the beauty and profusion that clothes the earth.
The motion of the solar field must produce a considerable activity of the particles within the field itself, and particularly in its intense central zone. In this way the zodiacal light and its outward extension into the gegenschein can be explained, whilst examples of similar activity are suggested by the lines of the solar corona and the terrestrial aurorae. These examples must be admitted to be complex phenomena, but this simple outline perhaps indicates the nature of the fundamental energy which activates their production. Similarly, in view of the electro-magnetic theory of light it would seem that the electro-magnetic field of the earth must play a large part in all those phenomena due to scattering of light, but to deal with these things fully requires investigation that will occupy many years.