Main Points, with questions
Galaxy Evolution
  1. Data/Definitions
    1. Arp asserts that quasars of high redshift can be reliably associated with galaxies of a much lower redshift.
    2. "Intrinsic redshift" is the difference between the redshifts of the quasar and its associated AGN. This can be positive or negative, for redshifts that are greater or lesser than the AGN.
    3. Quasars near the AGN show a greater intrinsic redshift (+/-) than quasars further from it.
    4. The intrinsic redshifts are quantized (i.e., the Karlsson periodicity).
  2. http://www.holoscience.com/wp/cosmology-in-crisis-again/
  3. Quasars appear to be ejected, deficient in electrons, from their parent active galactic nucleus (AGN).
    1. What kind of mechanism would eject a quasar?
  4. The lightweight electrons remain tangled in the AGN plasmoid for much longer than the heavier protons and uncharged neutrons.
    1. What keeps the quasar organized in spite of the Coulomb force from the net charge?
  5. All subatomic particles in the quasar have lower masses.
    1. Before bending the most fundamental laws of physics, a reasonable attempt should be made to find a configuration of the existing laws to explain the phenomenon. Lawless are they who make their own laws.
  6. Therefore, the emitting atoms also have lower masses, and their radiation has lower energy.
    1. What is meant by "lower energy"?
  7. The result is the observed intrinsic redshift of atomic emissions from quasars and their relative faintness.
    1. Why would particles of lower mass emit fewer photons?
  8. The quantum jumps over time to lower redshift values occur as electrons from the parent galaxy's jet arrive at the quasar and increase the quasar's charge polarization.
    1. What is meant by "charge polarization"?
    2. Why would this change the redshift?
  9. As its mass increases, the quasar slows from its high ejection speed at 'birth,' due to conservation of momentum.
    1. How was it determined that quasars are "born" instead of just existing in elliptical orbits around the AGN?
  10. When the intrinsic redshift value gets down to around z -0.3, the quasar starts to look like a small galaxy or BL Lac object and begins to fall back toward its parent, while continuing to decrease in redshift.
  11. Eventually it becomes a companion galaxy.
  12. [] family groupings [] can be traced to three and four generations of ejecting objects [i.e. companion galaxies].
  13. In an Electric Universe, faintness together with high intrinsic redshift is a measure of youthfulness, not distance and speed of recession.
  14. Two new studies [] from the University of Vienna [] have examined so-called "satellite galaxies."
  15. This term is used for dwarf galaxy companions of the Milky Way, some of which contain only a few thousand stars.
  16. According to the best cosmological models, they exist presumably in hundreds around most of the major galaxies.
  17. Up to now, however, only 30 such satellites have been observed around the Milky Way, a discrepancy in numbers
  18. [The discrepancy] is commonly attributed to the fact that the light emitted from the majority of satellite galaxies is so faint they remain invisible.
  19. A detailed study of these stellar agglomerates has revealed [] there is something unusual about their distribution
  20. the eleven brightest dwarf galaxies – lie more or less in the same plane, [] forming some sort of a disc [around the Milky Way].
  21. most of these satellite galaxies rotate in the same direction around the Milky Way – like the planets revolve around the Sun.
  22. "The stars in the satellites [] are moving much faster than predicted by the Gravitational Law.
  23. The deviations detected in the satellite galaxy data support the hypothesis that in space where extremely weak accelerations predominate, a "modified Newton dynamic" must be adopted.
  24. This diagram shows the development of a spiral galaxy like our Milky Way in an Electric Universe.
  25. The long-range (1/r) electromagnetic interaction between pairs of intergalactic current filaments, known as "Birkeland currents," attracts matter from a vast volume of space.
  26. Where two filaments intersect, they form a spiral galaxy through the powerful electromagnetic "Z-pinch" effect.
  27. This concept has been tested in the lab and by 'particle-in-cell' supercomputer simulations.
  28. It shows that the extremely weak and limited-range (1/r^2) force of gravity has negligible effect in forming a spiral galaxy.
  29. Formation of the Milky Way galaxy in a cosmic Z-pinch offers a simple explanation for the discovery of satellite galaxies rotating in the same sense in the plane of the Milky Way galaxy.
  30. The Z-pinch simulation (left) [is compared to] the plasma 'witness plate' equatorial pattern produced in a supernova discharge (right).
  31. The immense scalability of plasma phenomena allows us to use the dramatic example of the effects of a plasma Z-pinch on a stellar scale in supernova 1987A to explain what happens on a galactic scale.
  32. The Milky Way is formed in the central plasma column of the Z-pinch.
  33. Surrounding the Milky Way axially are a number of interacting plasma filaments arranged in concentric cylinders that have the potential to produce satellite galaxies.
  34. The number of filaments follows a characteristic pattern that suggests they will not be found "in hundreds."
  35. Peratt writes: "Because the electrical current-carrying filaments are parallel, they attract via the Biot-Savart force law, in pairs but sometimes three[s].
  36. This reduces the 56 filaments over time to 28 filaments, hence the 56 and 28 fold symmetry patterns.
  37. In actuality, during the pairing, any number of filaments less than 56 may be recorded as pairing is not synchronized to occur uniformly.
  38. However, there are 'temporarily stable' (longer state) durations at 42, 35, 28, 14, 7, and 4 filaments.
  39. Each pair formation is a vortex that becomes increasingly complex."
  40. The rotating "vortexes" of the Milky Way and its satellites are driven electrically and will be in the same sense and roughly coplanar.
  41. On a grand scale, the recently discovered evidence for a preferred handedness and axial alignment of spiral galaxies can be explained simply as the result of the general vector of electric current flow in our small corner of an Electric Universe of unknown size and age
  42. [] MIT Technology Review [said]: "the axis of this alignment points directly towards the mysterious cold spot in the cosmic microwave background, which was discovered in the southern hemisphere in 2004.
  43. Nobody knows what caused the cold spot although there are no shortage of ideas.
  44. "cosmic microwave background" (CMB) radiation is not "background" at all.
  45. It is a local radio "fog" from interacting Birkeland filaments within the Milky Way.
  46. The "cold spot" confirms that the "CMB" has no cosmological significance.
  47. It is commonsense that one hemisphere will be "colder" than the other, unless we just happen to be dead-center in the electric current stream of our arm of the Milky Way — an unlikely situation.
  48. Galaxies are not formed by collisions and gravitational accretion.
  49. Such a mechanism can only produce random results, which we do not observe.
Star Forming Filaments
  1. http://www.holoscience.com/wp/eu-view/
  2. "Something creates and maintains micro-Gauss coherent magnetic fields on an enormous scale" [in the universe]
  3. A network of 27 star forming filaments [was] derived from Herschel observations of the IC 5146 molecular cloud.
  4. Stars form in molecular clouds by a process of Marklund convection toward current filaments
  5. [They] look just like a cosmic form of cloud-to-cloud lightning.
  6. Marklund convection concentrates matter along a current filament with a long-range and more powerful [than gravity's 1/r^2 force] 1/r electromagnetic force.*s?*
  7. Marklund convection separates the chemical elements with the coolest and most easily ionized elements, such as iron and silicon, nearest the axis.
  8. With sufficient matter along the filament, gravity assists in forming separate stars and smaller bodies
  9. [They resemble] glowing beads along a lightning channel [and have] cool cores of heavy elements and atmospheres of hydrogen and helium.
  10. It seems that stars continue to receive electrical energy from the galactic current filament in which they formed.
  11. This has been recently established by the 'surprising' influx of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from a ring about the solar system, aligned across the interstellar magnetic field.
  12. The ring with its 'bright spots' indicates the presence of an electromagnetic 'pinch' in the co-axial interstellar current cylinders that power the Sun.
  13. M2-9 [] 'planetary nebula' shows a typical star's co-axial circuit in a more active 'glow mode.'
  14. The electromagnetic plasma 'pinch' centered on the star is clearly evident.
  15. the photospheres of stars [are each] a global electric discharge phenomenon at the very top of their gravitationally stratified atmospheres where the lightest elements, hydrogen and helium, are in abundance.
  16. for solar theorists [] there is no explanation for lightning in the Earth's gravitationally stratified atmosphere
  17. Much less are the weird phenomena above lightning storms understood.
  18. Eddington [said in 1926] "[] suppose that bright line spectra in the stars are produced by electric discharges similar to those producing bright line spectra in a vacuum tube."
  19. students are taught [mistakenly] the conductivity of space plasma is so high that any electric field in it can be set to zero.
  20. But experience in gaseous discharges shows that currents, and not electric fields, in plasma are important.
  21. Alfvén showed that the solar 'wind' must be a 'dark' current that flows in a circuit between the Sun and its galactic environment.
  22. Most importantly, the electric field in the bulk of the plasma within the heliosphere is not zero, but vanishingly small
  23. [It is] just sufficient to accelerate the solar 'wind' protons away from the Sun and then reversing direction to bring the solar wind mysteriously to a halt at the heliosphere boundary, or 'virtual cathode' of the solar discharge.
  24. Juergens identified the many observed discharge phenomena on the Sun as characteristic of those above a positive anode.
  25. The interplanetary plasma potential 'locks' to that of the anode — the Sun.
  26. So the electric driving potential of the Sun is confined largely to the distant heliosphere boundary [], where the solar wind has [] come to a halt.
  27. The heliospheric plasma sheath is the 'virtual cathode' in the Sun's circuit.
  28. The electric field first reverses on approaching the cathode, causing the protons to decelerate with no evidence of a galactic 'head wind.'
  29. Beyond that region the protons will accelerate rapidly away to become cosmic rays.
  30. The electrons coming from that vast 'virtual cathode' sphere are focused down a trillion times by the time they reach the photosphere and produce the radiance of the Sun.
Marklund Convection
  1. http://www.holoscience.com/wp/our-misunderstood-sun/
  2. Stars are formed following Marklund convection of charged particles in dusty plasma toward the axis of galactic Birkeland current filaments.
  3. General form of the magnetic field line pattern in a force-free axisymmetric filamentary structure [is shown].
  4. The filament is transparent so the temperature decreases toward the axis due to a preferential cooling of the densest regions.
  5. So the ionized components of the plasma are convected inwards with a velocity V across a temperature gradient, delta T.
  6. It is a very efficient mechanism which results in scavenging matter with a long-range 1/r force.
  7. Marklund explains: "In my paper in Nature the plasma convects radially inwards, with the normal E x B/B2 velocity, towards the center of a cylindrical flux tube.
  8. During this convection inwards, the different chemical constituents of the plasma, each having its specific ionization potential, enter into a progressively cooler region.
  9. The plasma constituents will recombine and become neutral, and thus no longer under the influence of the electromagnetic forcing.
  10. The ionization potentials will thus determine where the different species will be deposited, or stopped in their motion."
  11. Stars formed in this way have an outer envelope of helium and hydrogen.
  12. Working inwards, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen will form the atmospheric middle layers, and iron, silicon and magnesium will make up the core, which is cool.
  13. This infrared image of the Orion nebula shows the new (red) stars forming along twisting current filaments in a dusty plasma.
  14. Dr. Carl A. Rouse [] found from his study of pulsating variable stars that there is something wrong with the standard model of the interior of stars.
  15. Using the usual assumptions he could not match the observed mass, luminosity and radius of the Sun
  16. He found that his model worked only by assuming the Sun has a core of heavy elements.
  17. What is more, he can reproduce the observed helioseismic oscillations.
  18. Rouse's work [] fits the plasma cosmology story of star formation in a Z-pinch, with the heavy elements concentrated at the core.
  19. It explains simply why the solar irradiance exhibits modulation identical to that of neutrinos.
Star Forming Filaments
  1. http://www.holoscience.com/wp/assembling-the-solar-system/
  2. [In] the Eagle Nebula, M16 [or] "Pillars of Creation" [] The glowing HII region is ionized atomic hydrogen plasma.
  3. The pillars are not turbulent, they have the characteristic tornadic column form of parallel z-pinch plasma discharge filaments.
  4. Z-pinches are the most efficient scavengers of matter in space, having an attractive force that falls linearly with distance from the axis.
  5. in the Trifid Nebula [] a "young stellar objects" (YSO) region shows detail of the Trifid column 2 (TC2).
  6. The inset image shows the telltale polar jet aligned with the z-pinch column.
  7. The glowing "ionization front" is not principally a photo-ionization or collisional effect but the glow of a plasma double-layer, energized by electric current.
  8. The nearby Herbig-Haro object, HH399, exhibits the typical thin polar corkscrew jet seen in more detail in the Herbig-Haro 49/50
  9. HH34 is another example where the plasma "beading" is clearly visible in the stellar jet.
  10. The heated, glowing plasma in these jets can extend for trillions of miles.
  11. They do not explosively dissipate in the vacuum of space because of the electromagnetic "pinch effect" of the electric current flowing along the jet.
  12. The spiral shape is that of Birkeland current filaments, which are the universal power transmission lines.
  13. Birkeland current pairs have been shown by both experiment and supercomputer simulations to form an axial sump of plasma, segregated radially by Marklund convection.
  14. Birkeland currents align themselves with the ambient magnetic field direction.
  15. The hourglass z-pinch shape has been confirmed in the magnetic field of a star-forming region.
  16. And in laboratory z-pinch experiments, the plasma tends to form a number of "beads" along the axis (see HH34 above), which "scatter like buckshot" once the discharge subsides.
  17. Alfvén proposed the electrical circuit diagram for a star.
  18. It is in the form of a simple Faraday motor, which explains why the Sun's equatorial plasma is driven fastest.
  19. It also explains the presence of the circumstellar disk, formed and held there by electromagnetic forces and not by weak gravity.
  20. And the problem of transfer of rotational energy does not arise because the entire system is held by powerful electromagnetic forces and driven like an electric motor.
  21. (The same explanation, of course, applies on a much grander scale to the anomalous rotation of the disk of spiral galaxies).
  22. When the star-forming z-pinch subsides, gravity is not able to retain the disk for long and current flowing in the disk (the stellar wind) sweeps the space clear.
  1. The European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory [finds] that stars are formed in "an incredible network of filamentary structures
  2. [The] features indicat[e] a chain of near-simultaneous star-formation events [] in a cloud of cold gas in the constellation of the Southern Cross.
  3. But the images reveal a surprising amount of turmoil:
  4. the interstellar material is condensing into continuous and interconnected filaments glowing from the light emitted by new-born stars at various stages of development."
  5. "The filaments are [] stretching for tens of light years through space
  6. and Herschel has shown that newly-born stars are often found in the densest parts of them…
  7. Now, Herschel has shown that, regardless of the length or density of a filament, the width is always roughly the same.
  8. Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay ... analysed 90 filaments and found they were all about 0.3 light years across {or about 20,000 times the distance of Earth from the Sun}.
  9. This diagram shows a network of 27 star forming filaments derived from Herschel observations of the IC 5146 molecular cloud.
  10. the favored conventional explanation [is] "sonic booms" generated by [unseen] "exploding stars!"
  11. explosions should impose some degree of radial curvature on these filaments.
  12. But what we see is more like the tortuous paths of cloud-to-cloud lightning bolts.
  13. For that is what they are [] on a cosmic scale.
  14. parallel currents attract each other
  15. in a plasma, currents [] have a tendency to collect to filaments.
  16. [Bennett found that] this [] lead[s] to the formation of a pinch.
  17. The constant width over vast distances is due to the current flowing along the Birkeland filaments,
  18. each filament [is] constituting a part of a larger electric circuit.
  19. And in a circuit the current must be the same in the whole filament although the current density can vary in the filament due to the electromagnetic pinch effect.
  20. Therefore the electromagnetic scavenging effect on matter from the molecular cloud, called Marklund convection, is constant along each current filament, which simply explains the consistency of widths of the filaments.
  21. The stars form as plasmoids in the Bennett-pinches [a.k.a.] {Z-pinches}.
  22. This diagram shows the true nature of the filaments inside the molecular cloud.
  23. The electric field vector (E) and helical magnetic field configuration (B) are shown.
  24. Inward Marklund convection of ions at velocity, V, across a temperature gradient, []T, is a mechanism for rapid filament formation and chemical separation in cosmic plasma
  25. so the heavy elements ("metals" in astrophysics-speak) are found on-axis and [they] not hydrogen [] must therefore constitute the core matter of stars
  26. Many [] 'impossible' stars are already known, some containing up to 150 solar masses
  27. now [] Herschel has seen one near the beginning of its life
  28. The luminosity of a star is not related to its massiveness because no nuclear fusion is taking place in its heavy element core.
  29. And the massiveness of a star is not related to its size because the photosphere is not a surface in the usual sense
  30. rather [it is] an electric discharge phenomenon some distance above the surface of the star.
  31. The light of a star comes from the available electrical energy coursing along the enveloping Birkeland filaments.
  32. "sonic booms" caused by the pressure of light from the star [] is negligible compared to the electromagnetic forces in the enveloping plasma.
  33. And any such collision would serve to further ionise the dust and gas and make it more susceptible to the electromagnetic force.
Cosmic Ray Hotspots Confirm Solar Circuit
  1. Alfvén's Solar Circuit [is] Confirmed
  2. On May 3, the New Scientist published [it in] "Strange cosmic ray hotspots stalk southern skies."
  3. Cosmic rays [] over the South Pole appear to be coming from particular locations, rather than being distributed uniformly across the sky.
  4. Similar cosmic ray "hotspots" have been seen in the northern skies too
  5. yet we know of no source close enough to produce this pattern.
  6. IceCube [] at the South Pole [] detects muons produced by neutrinos striking ice
  7. but it also detects muons created by cosmic rays hitting Earth's atmosphere.
  8. These cosmic ray muons can be used to figure out the direction of the original cosmic ray particle.
  9. Between May 2009 and May 2010, IceCube detected 32 billion cosmic-ray muons, with a median energy of about 20 teraelectronvolts (TeV) [tera -trillion].
  10. These muons revealed, with extremely high statistical significance, a southern sky with some regions of excess cosmic rays ("hotspots") and others with a deficit of cosmic rays ("cold" spots).
  11. Over the past two years, a similar pattern has been seen over the northern skies
  12. the hotspots must be produced within about 0.03 light years of Earth.
  13. Further out, galactic magnetic fields should deflect the particles so much that the hotspots would be smeared out across the sky.
  14. But no such sources are known to exist.
  15. In the 1920s Irving Langmuir and Harold Mott-Smith showed that in a discharge tube the plasma sets up a thin boundary sheath which separates it from a wall or from a probe and shields it from the electric field.
  16. The electric field in this sheath, or 'double layer' of separated charge, accelerates charged particles.
  17. Sources of cosmic rays situated along the Sun's axes were predicted by Alfvén in 1986 in an IEEE publication
  18. He explains: "If an electric discharge is produced between a cathode and an anode there is a double layer, called a cathode sheath, produced near the cathode
  19. [It] accelerates electrons which carry a current through the plasma.
  20. A positive space charge separates the cathode sheath from the plasma.
  21. Similarly, a double layer is set up near the anode, protecting the plasma from this electrode.
  22. Again, a space charge constitutes the border between the double layer and the plasma.
  23. All these double layers carry electric currents."
  24. The Sun acts as a unipolar inductor (A) producing a current which goes outward along both the axes (B2) and inward in the equatorial plane along the magnetic field lines (B1).
  25. The current must close at large distances (B3), either as a homogeneous current layer, or — more likely — as a pinched current.
  26. Analogous to the [Earth's?] auroral circuit, there may be double layers (DLs) which should be located symmetrically on the Sun's axes.
  27. Such double layers have not yet been discovered [except via cosmic ray hotspots].
  28. In the circuit model, it was noted that every circuit that contains an inductance is intrinsically explosive.
  29. This is true because a conductive circuit will tend to supply all of the inductive energy to any point of interruption of the circuit.
  30. Double layers are known to tend to interrupt current in a plasma.
  31. Hence, the entire energy of a circuit can be released at the point where a double layer forms regardless of the source of the energy of the circuit.
  32. Because of their property of generating cosmic rays, synchrotron radiation, radio noise, and occasionally exploding, Alfvén proposed, "DL's may be considered as a new class of celestial objects…
  33. For example, the heliospheric current system must close at large distances, and it is possible — perhaps likely — that this is done by a network of filamentary currents.
  34. Many such filaments may produce DL's, and some of these may explode."
  35. To give an idea of their omnipresence in space, DLs are implicated in the earth's auroral regions, extragalactic jets, stellar jets, novae and supernovae, X-ray and gamma-ray bursts, X-ray pulsars, double radio sources, solar flares, and the source of cosmic ray acceleration.
  36. It seems that Alfvén's DLs have been detected in the form of "cosmic ray hotspots" generated in Birkeland current filaments "less than 0.03 light years" from the Sun.
  37. The hotspots should be found to align with the local interstellar magnetic field.
  38. The median energy of the cosmic rays reported at 20 TeV is within the range expected from a cosmic DL.
  39. [Alfvén said] "More than 99 percent of the Universe consists of plasma, and the ratio between electromagnetic and gravitational forces is 1039."
  1. http://www.holoscience.com/wp/supernova-1987a-decoded-2/
  2. The axial shape of SN1987A is that of a planetary nebula.
  3. [] Dr. Charles Bruce [], argued that the bipolar shape, temperatures and magnetic fields of planetary nebulae could be explained as an electrical discharge.
  4. The term "z-pinch" comes from the usual representation of a current flowing along the z-axis, parallel to the magnetic field.
  5. With a strong enough current, the plasma formed by the discharge electromagnetically "pinches" into a string of sausages, donuts and plasma instabilities, along the z-axis.
  6. it has become clear to plasma cosmologists that the electrical z-pinch effect is instrumental in forming stars.
  7. Once formed, stars continue to be lit by electrical power delivered throughout the universe by cosmic transmission lines known as Birkeland current filaments.
  8. These giant filaments can be traced by their radio transmissions.
  9. Stars also trace the Birkeland currents in galaxies in the same way that electric streetlights trace the routes of electrical cables.
  10. Anthony Peratt [in an IEEE paper in 2003] explained the unusual characteristics of a high-energy plasma discharge [] and showed their characteristic 56- and 28-fold symmetry.
  11. This photograph shows a 0.6-mm-thick titanium witness plate that has been placed 15 cm in front of a 100 kilo-Gauss, sub-megaampere charged particle beam.
  12. Initially, the particle beam was cylindrical but after traveling the 15 cm has filamented.
  13. In the sub-gigaampere range, the maximum number of self-pinched filaments allowed before the cylindrical magnetic field will no longer split into "islands" for the parameters above has been found to be 56.
  14. These results verify that individual current filaments were maintained by their azimuthal self-magnetic fields, a property lost by increasing the number of electrical current filaments.
  15. The scaling is constant for a given hollow beam thickness, from microampere beams to multi-megaampere beams and beam diameters of millimeters to thousands of kilometers.
  16. This scaling of plasma phenomena has been extended to more than 14 orders of magnitude
  17. so the bright ring of supernova 1987A can be considered as a stellar scale "witness plate" with the equatorial ejecta sheet acting as the "plate" for the otherwise invisible axial Birkeland currents.
  18. The images of SN 1987A shows the Birkeland currents around the star have paired to a number close to 28.
  19. The bright spots show a tendency toward pairing and groups of three.
  20. This witness plate model explains why the glowing ring is so nearly circular and is expanding very slowly – unlike a shock front.
  21. If the equatorial ring shows the Birkeland currents in the outer sheath of an axial plasma current column, then the supernova outburst is the result of a cosmic z-pinch in the central column, focused on the central star.
  22. It is important to note that the z-pinch naturally takes the ubiquitous hourglass shape of planetary nebulae.
  23. No special conditions and mysteriously conjured magnetic fields are required.
  24. The Birkeland currents will only be visible where the plasma density is high.
  25. It is also the shape of SN1987A with its three rings.
  26. Some bright spots may be seen to rotate about each other and to merge.
  27. Plasma cosmologists have not ignored the pulsar, sometimes found in a supernova remnant.
  28. Healy and Peratt [] concluded: our results support the 'planetary magnetosphere' view, where the extent of the magnetosphere, not emission points on a rotating surface, determines the pulsar emission."
  29. we do not require a hypothetical super-condensed object to form a pulsar.
  30. A normal stellar remnant undergoing periodic discharges will suffice.
  31. Plasma cosmology [is] not requiring neutron stars or black holes to explain compact sources of radiation.
  1. [There is] "A Symmetric Bipolar Nebula Around MWC 922" [] The Red Square Nebula.
  2. The image above [] was taken in near-infrared light (1.6 microns) and shows a region 30.8 arcseconds on a side around MWC 922.
  3. The Red Square image is very important because [the nebula] is only 5,000 light years away.
  4. It is compared in the report with the structures seen around supernova 1987A, which is 169,000 light years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
  5. all of the detailed features of [SN1987A] remnant could be explained in terms of a cosmic 'Z-pinch' plasma discharge, focused on a star.
  6. The Birkeland current filaments will only be visible where the plasma density is high.
  7. The diagram above shows the essential features of a plasma Z-pinch (left), the detailed filamentary current structure (center), and the 'witness plate' result of the Birkeland current filaments interacting with the equatorial expulsion disk of supernova 1987A.
  8. The Red Square shows the stellar Z-pinch in close-up and we can see the Birkeland filaments for the first time, called 'combs' in the Science paper.
  9. But the most compelling and important implication for astronomy comes from the three-dimensional structure implied by the Red Square images.
  10. The bipolar hourglass shape is a stellar circuit made visible.
  11. Exploding double layers are very important in stellar outbursts.
  12. It is the only stellar explosion mechanism that naturally produces bipolar remnants and equatorial ejection disks (as distinct from hypothetical 'accretion' disks) and lends itself to empirical testing in the lab.
  13. "In Sweden the [] transfer of [electric] power [was] over a distance of about 1000 km
  14. mercury rectifiers were developed [that sometimes] produced enormous over-voltages so that fat electrical sparks filled the rectifying station and did considerable harm.
  15. An arc rectifier must have a very low pressure of mercury vapor in order to stand the high back voltages during half of the a.c. cycle.
  16. [But] it must be able to carry large currents during the other half-cycle [in d.c.].
  17. these two requirements were conflicting, because at a very low pressure the plasma could not carry enough current.
  18. If the current density is too high, an exploding double layer may be formed.
  19. in the plasma a region of high vacuum is produced: the plasma refuses to carry any current at all.
  20. The sudden interruption of the 1000 km inductance produces enormous over-voltages, which may be destructive."
  21. In 1964 Jacobsen and Carlqvist suggested that exploding double layers produced violent solar flares.
  22. In an extreme situation the power from a galactic circuit is catastrophically released in an exploding double layer near the surface of a star to produce a supernova.
  23. A number of double layers develop in series between a star and its galactic environment.
  24. Strong electric fields exist across them summing to the voltage difference between the star and the galactic plasma environment.
  25. Cosmic rays allow us to estimate the voltages of stars at tens of billions of volts.
  26. Ions and electrons are accelerated across the thin double layers and collide.
  27. The 'linear rungs or bars' of the Red Square fit Alfvén's circuit diagram as polar 'double layers,' symmetrically situated along the Z-pinch filaments, some distance from the star's two poles.
  28. Their thinness and electrical excitation results in the enhanced glow and sharp definition of the 'rungs or bars.'
  29. Alfvén[']s 'wiring diagram' is essentially correct but incomplete because it does not show the star's connection to the larger galactic circuit.
  30. Alfvén remarked, "The current closes at large distances, but we do not know where."
  31. Plasma cosmologists have supplied the answer by mapping the currents flowing along the arms of spiral galaxies.
  32. It is [therefore probable] that all stars are the focus of Z-pinches within a galactic discharge.
  33. Normally the current flows in 'dark mode' so we don't usually see the spectacular bipolar 'wiring harnesses' of hyperactive stars, like that at the heart of Red Square.
  34. All we witness, closest to home, are the effects on the Sun's 'surface,' in its superheated corona, and the solar 'wind.'
  1. In cosmic molecular clouds, where stars are formed, just one charged particle in ten thousand neutral particles is sufficient for electric and magnetic forces to overcome gravity.
  2. Plasma in space is an excellent conductor but it is not a superconductor, as astronomers assume when they talk of 'frozen in' magnetic fields.
  3. Plasma clouds that move relative to each other generate electric currents in each other.
  4. Electric currents in plasma take the form of twisted filament pairs, which follow the ambient magnetic field direction.
  5. The filamentary current is electrically insulated from the surroundings in a way similar to a current in an electric cable located in the ocean and carrying current through a low resistance metal wire.
  6. The magnetic fields generated by these currents have been detected between and within galaxies.
  7. These currents are not visible because the current density is too low to excite the plasma to emit light [i.e. it's in] "dark current mode."
  8. For currents to continue to flow, they must eventually form into circuits.
  9. If external electrical currents power stars and galaxies, the power source is probably not located in the stars.
  10. Charged bodies embedded in plasma create about themselves a protective cocoon of plasma [called] a Langmuir plasma sheath, or 'double layer' [DL]
  11. [The DL] contains most of the voltage difference between the charged body and the surrounding plasma.
  12. Only an electric current sustains the charge separation across the double layer.
  13. If the surrounding plasma is moving relative to the charged body, the plasma sheath is drawn out into a teardrop or cometary shape.
  14. And if the charged body is rotating it will generate a magnetic field that is trapped inside the plasma sheath.
  15. This has led to the misnomer — "magnetosphere" — when referring to a plasma sheath.
  16. In interstellar space [DLs] produce the cosmic microwave radiation, mistakenly interpreted as the afterglow from the mythical big bang.
  17. Alfvén [] suggested that X-ray and gamma ray bursts may be due to exploding double layers.
  18. An important feature of plasma sheaths, or double layers, is that the electric field on either side of the thin double layer is very weak and the plasma there is 'quasi neutral.'
  19. That's why we do not see evidence of a strong electric field from the charged Sun, and why the 'solar wind' appears to be electrically neutral.
  20. For this reason, the bulk movement and magnetic field of the 'solar wind' best signify the Sun's electrical activity.
  21. The so-called 'winds' and 'jets' of stars are a form of 'dark current,' equivalent to the breeze from an air ionizer.
  22. The enigma of prodigious stellar winds accelerating away from the 'cool' photospheres of red giant stars is simply solved
  23. An electric star is formed by the equivalent of a lightning bolt in a molecular (plasma) cloud.
  24. Just like earthly lightning, cosmic lightning scavenges, squeezes and heats matter along the discharge channel.
  25. Where the squeeze is most intense, the current may 'pinch off' to give the effect of 'bead lightning.'
  26. In high-energy plasma lab discharges researchers have found that hot plasma 'beads' (known as plasmoids) form along the discharge axis before "scattering like buckshot" when the discharge quenches.
  27. Marklund convection causes helium to form a diffuse outer layer, followed by a hydrogen layer, then oxygen and nitrogen in the middle layers, and iron, silicon and magnesium in the inner layers.
  28. So electric stars should have a core of heavy elements and an upper atmosphere mostly of hydrogen.
  29. This renders the difference between stars and planets to be more apparent than real.
  30. In addition to scavenging elements, stars produce electrically in the high-energy electrical discharges of their photospheres all of the elements required to form rocky planets.
  31. Nucleosynthesis of heavy elements does not require a supernova explosion.
  32. Planets are then born by electrical expulsion of matter from the body of the star in the form of giant mass ejection events, like we see in miniature in solar outbursts.
  33. Large stellar flares and nova outbursts probably signal the birth of planets.
  34. Disks of matter encircling stars are not due to gravitational accretion but to electrical expulsion.
  35. The bright photosphere of a star is an electric discharge high in its upper atmosphere that can be compared directly with low-pressure glow discharges in the lab.
  36. The spectrum of the photosphere reflects the star's upper atmosphere composition, which is largely hydrogen.
  37. The heavy elements seen in the spectrum are produced right before our eyes in the photospheric discharge.
  38. Measurements of stellar radii are misleading since the photosphere is a bright plasma 'skin' at great height in the atmosphere above the solid surface of the star.
  39. That height, in the case of the Sun, may be estimated simplistically as follows: the Sun has a mass equivalent to 333,000 Earths;
  40. if most of the mass of the Sun is in heavy elements similar to the Earth, the Sun would have a solid diameter somewhat less than 900,000 kilometers, compared to its optical diameter of 1.4 million kilometers.
  41. That suggests the photosphere is some 250,000 kilometers above the surface of the Sun.
  42. helioseismology assumes the standard thermonuclear model of stars and interprets [helioseismic] oscillations of the photosphere as a purely mechanical phenomenon.
  43. the question of what causes the Sun's 'ringing' remains unanswered.
  44. "The flute does not produce music unless one blows in it."
  45. On the other hand, a fundamental characteristic of plasma double layers is that they are driven electromagnetically to oscillate.
  46. Photospheric oscillations are properly the study of double layers and stellar circuits, not mechanical sound waves.
  47. This study has wider applications than to photospheric 'ringing.'
  48. For example, the regular pulsations of 'neutron stars,' conventionally attributed to a "runaway lighthouse effect," are better explained by oscillations in the magnetospheric circuit of a normal, lazily rotating and externally powered electric star.
  49. A star is a pinpoint object at the center of a vast plasma sheath.
  50. The plasma sheath forms the boundary of the electrical influence of the star, where it meets the electrical environment of the galaxy.
  51. The Sun's plasma sheath, or 'heliosphere', is about 100 times more distant than the Earth is from the Sun.
  52. The Sun's heliosphere could accommodate the stars from 8 Milky Ways!
  53. Clearly, in the immense volume of the heliosphere an unmeasurably small drift of electrons toward the Sun and ions away from the Sun (the solar wind) can satisfy the electrical power required to light the Sun.
  54. It is only when we get very close to the Sun that the current density becomes appreciable and plasma discharge effects become visible.
  55. The enigma of the Sun's millions-of-degrees corona above a relatively 'stone cold' photosphere is immediately solved when the Sun's power comes from the galaxy and not the center of the Sun!
  56. It is clear from the behavior of its relatively cool photosphere that the Sun is an anode, or positively charged electrode, in a galactic discharge.
  57. The red chromosphere is the counterpart to the glow above the anode surface in a discharge tube.
  58. When the current density is too high for the anode surface to accommodate, a bright secondary plasma forms within the primary plasma [] termed "anode tufting."
  59. On the Sun, the tufts are packed together tightly so that their tops give the appearance of "granulation."

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